Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - 59

Unit 3 Refrigeration and Refrigerants

the service technician's responsibility to keep abreast with
the most recent laws and rules concerning refrigerants use
and service:
R-134a-Properties very similar to R-12. Used primarily
in medium- and high-temperature refrigeration applications, refrigerators and freezers, and automotive
air-conditioning. It is a replacement for R-12 but not
a direct one because retrofitting is required. The esterbased lubricants used with R-134a are not compatible
with the oils typically used in R-12 systems.
R-402A-A near-azeotropic interim HCFC-based refrigerant retrofit blend of R-125, R-290, and R-22 for
low- and medium-temperature commercial refrigeration applications. Replaces R-502.
R-404A-R-404A has slightly higher working pressures
than R-502. A near-azeotropic refrigerant blend with
a small temperature glide. Eliminated from new supermarket refrigeration systems, remote condensing
units, and some stand-alone equipment because of its
high GWP. Some new lower-GWP refrigerants, such
as R-448A, R-449A, R-450A, and R-513A, all have
less than half the GWP of the candidates they are
replacing.
R-407A-A retrofit refrigerant blend for R-22 in mediumand low-temperature commercial refrigeration applications. It is not recommended for air conditioning
applications.
R-407C-Similar properties to R-22. It is replacing R-22
in residential and commercial air-conditioning applications. It can be used as a retrofit refrigerant for
R-22. A near-azeotropic refrigerant blend, R-407C,
like R-134a, operates with ester-based lubricants
that are not compatible with the oils typically used
in R-22 systems. R-407C is a great choice when the
condensing unit of a system must be replaced, as most
of the refrigeration oil is contained in the compressor.
R-407C can also be used in-medium temperature
refrigeration systems.
R-408A-A near-azeotropic interim HCFC based refrigerant retrofit blend of R-125, R-143a, and R-22 for
low- and medium-temperature commercial refrigeration applications. Replaces R-502.
R-410A-A near-azeotropic refrigerant blend replacing
R-22 in residential and commercial air-conditioning
applications. It has much higher operating pressures
than R-22 and special safety concerns. R-410A has a
very small temperature glide and is not recommended
as a retrofit refrigerant. SAFETY PRECAUTION: Never
add R-410A to a system that was manufactured for use
with R-22. R-22 system components are typically not manufactured to accept the higher operating pressures that
are present in R-410A systems. For example, the shells of
R-410A compressors are manufactured with thicker steel
than are the shells of R-22 compressors.●   

59

R-417A-A near-azeotropic retrofit refrigerant blend for
R-22 direct expansion air-conditioning systems. It is
best suited to replace R-22 in smaller split air-conditioning systems. It is an efficient and cost effective,
non-ozone depleting HFC-based refrigerant blend.
It is compatible with mineral oil, alkylbenzene, and
polyol ester lubricants. It has lower discharge temperatures and pressures than R-22.
R-438A-A near-azeotropic refrigerant blend for use as
a retrofit refrigerant for R-22 with minimum system
change. R-438A is a blend of five different refrigerants.
It can be used for retrofitting R-22 direct expansion
air-conditioning (high-temperature) applications and
medium- and low-temperature refrigeration applications. It has a small percentage of hydrocarbons in its
blend to help in oil return. This makes it compatible
with mineral oils. R-438A is nonflammable and has an
ASHRAE safety group classification of A1. Its ozone
depletion potential (ODP) is zero. The evaporator and
condenser temperature glide is typically in the 6-7°F
temperature range. It is not recommended for flooded
evaporators or systems with centrifugal compressors.
R-422A-A near-azeotropic retrofit refrigerant blend for
R-502 and R-502 service blends in commercial refrigeration applications. Consists of R-125, R-134a, and
R-600a.
R-422B-A near-azeotropic retrofit refrigerant blend for
R-22 in air-conditioning.
R-422C-A near-azeotropic retrofit refrigerant blend for
R-502 and R-502 service blends in commercial refrigeration applications.
R-422D-A near-azeotropic refrigerant retrofit blend for
R-22 in commercial refrigeration applications.
R-427A-A near-azeotropic refrigerant retrofit blend
for R-22 in air-conditioning and commercial refrigeration, but preferred for commercial refrigeration
applications.
R-507-A replacement for R-502 in low- and mediumtemperature refrigeration applications. R-507 is an
azeotropic mixture of R-125 and R-143a. Has slightly
higher pressures and capacity than R-404A.
R-507A-An azeotropic mixture of R-125 and R-143a.
It has a higher efficiency than R-404A and also a
higher efficiency than low-temperature R-22. Polyol
ester lubricant must be used with R-507A. Eliminated
from new supermarket refrigeration systems, remote
condensing units, and some stand-alone equipment
because of its high GWP.
Some futuristic refrigerants with lower GWPs include:
HFO-1234yf-A low GWP replacement for R-134a
intended for use in mobile air-conditioning (MAC)
systems in the automotive industry. It is currently
being used in this application today in some MAC
systems.



Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e

Contents
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover1
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover2
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - i
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - ii
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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Contents
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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover4
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