Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - 7

7

Introduction

organizations, developed and continues to refine LEED.
LEED promotes expertise in green building by offering project
certification, professional accreditation, and training. LEED
emphasizes state-of-the-art strategies for sustainable site development, water savings, energy efficiency, material selection,
and indoor environmental quality. According to the United
Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, a sustainable design "meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs." Companies looking to utilize green
technologies or incorporate sustainable design into their buildings and facilities, are concerned with six areas:
●●
●●
●●
●●
●●
●●

Optimizing site location
Optimizing energy use
Protecting and conserving water
Using environmentally preferable products
Enhancing indoor environmental quality
Optimizing operational and maintenance practices

There are nine possible LEED rating categories, and
each is assigned individual points for reaching accreditation.
Listed here are the nine categories (separate rating systems)
and possible points per categories.
Category

Points Possible

New Construction
Existing Buildings (Operation &
Maintenance)
Commercial Interiors
Core & Shell
Schools
Retail
Healthcare
Homes
Neighborhood Development

110
92
110
110
110
110
110
136
110

Points are awarded in each category depending on how well
the building meets the category's requirements. For example,
the following information is taken from the New Construction
(NC) LEED Rating System. Keep in mind that each system
has different point-generation possibilities. The LEED NC
system requires that a building earn a minimum of 40 points
to meet minimum requirements out of a possible 110 points.
There are four levels of certification according to the point
system:
Certified
Silver
Gold
Platinum

40-49
50-59
60-79
80-110

A LEED NC certified building means that it has achieved
at least a minimum standard as judged in the following seven
categories prior to any points being awarded toward a LEED
rating.

Category
Sustainable Sites
Water Efficiency
Energy & Atmosphere
Materials & Resources
Indoor Environmental Quality
Innovation & Design Process
Regional Priority Credits

Points Possible
26
10
35
14
15
6
4
110

The Energy & Atmosphere category has a possible
35 points, with potentially 33 of them directly linked to HVAC
systems. This category for New Construction (NC) addresses
such items as the facility's basic consumption of energy, its
optimization of energy consumption, system commissioning
and refrigerant management, and use of on-site renewable
energy. Optimizing building facilities' performance can equate
to a possible 19 out of 35 points. These points would equate
to installing an HVAC system that improves efficiency by
48% for new construction or 44% for existing HVAC systems
and constitute a large portion of the possible points, which
provides opportunities in building renovation.
The Indoor Environmental Quality category has a possible
15 points, with potentially 7 of them directly linked to HVAC
systems. This category has multiple possibilities: HVAC systems
can affect outdoor air-delivery monitoring of facility ventilation,
minimum air changes in buildings for removing harmful volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), electronic thermal control systems,
and thermal comfort design and verification.
In summary, the purpose of LEED is to provide a third-party
certification process using nationally developed and accepted
minimum standards for the construction industry. It affects the
design, construction, and operation phases of high-performance
"green" buildings. LEED systems take into account other ways
of increasing efficiencies, such as water conservation, heat
island reduction in urban areas, incentives for use of locally
manufactured materials, site preparation, and maintenance as
well as the HVAC efficiencies listed above. To receive a LEED
rating, the facility must be built by a team, some of whose members are LEED accredited professionals. LEED-rated projects
have a higher cost than similar, non-LEED projects because the
enhancements required to increase efficiencies and the certification and documentation required cost more. Many European
nations have made LEED-type systems mandatory for all buildings and have instituted existing-building rating systems that
monitor yearly energy consumption of all utilities in these buildings. The higher a building's energy usage or "energy utilization index" above a minimum consumption, the higher amount
of penalty tax the building owner must pay. This provides an
incentive for improving the building's energy footprint.
The green awareness movement isn't just a temporary
"buzzword" that will fade away with time. It is one that will be
rapidly gaining momentum in the coming years. If contractors



Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e

Contents
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover1
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover2
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - i
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - ii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - iii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Contents
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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover4
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