Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - vii

vii

contents
21.12 Dry-Type Evaporator Performance
21.13 Evaporator Superheat
21.14 Hot Pulldown (Excessively Loaded
Evaporator)
21.15 Pressure Drop in Evaporators
21.16 Liquid Cooling Evaporators (Chillers)
21.17 Evaporators for Low-Temperature
Applications
21.18 Defrost of Accumulated Moisture
21.19 Evaporator and Defrost Efficiency
Controller

511
512
512
513
515
516
517
518

Unit 22 condensers

523

22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
22.5
22.6
22.7
22.8
22.9

523
523
524
524
526
527
528
528

22.10
22.11
22.12
22.13
22.14
22.15
22.16
22.17
22.18
22.19
22.20
22.21
22.22

The Condenser
Water-Cooled Condensers
Tube-Within-a-Tube Condensers
Mineral Deposits
Cleanable Tube-Within- a-Tube Condensers
Shell-and-Coil Condensers
Shell-and-Tube Condensers
Wastewater Systems
Refrigerant-to-Water Temperature
Relationship for Wastewater Systems
Recirculating Water Systems
Cooling Towers
Natural-Draft Towers
Forced- or Induced-Draft Towers
Evaporative Condensers
Air-Cooled Condensers
High-Efficiency Condensers
The Condenser and Low Ambient
Conditions
Head Pressure Controls
Using the Condenser Superheat
Heat Reclaim
Floating Head Pressures
Service Technician Calls

531
533
533
533
534
535
538
541
542
544
554
554
554
555

Unit 23 compressors

558

23.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.5
23.6
23.7
23.8
23.9
23.10

558
560
565
575
576
576
578
579
588

The Function of the Compressor
Types of Compressors
Reciprocating Compressor Components
Belt-Drive Mechanism Characteristics
Direct-Drive Compressor Characteristics
Reciprocating Compressor Efficiency
Discus Valve Design
New Technology in Compressors
Liquid in the Compressor Cylinder
System Maintenance and Compressor
Efficiency

Unit 24 expansion Devices
24.1
24.2
24.3
24.4
24.5
24.6
24.7
24.8
24.9
24.10
24.11
24.12
24.13

Expansion Devices
Thermostatic Expansion Valve
TxV Components
The Valve Body
The Diaphragm
Needle and Seat
The Spring
The Sensing Bulb and Transmission Tube
Types of Bulb Charge
The Liquid Charge Bulb
The Cross Liquid Charge Bulb
The Vapor (Gas) Charge Bulb
The Cross Vapor Charge Bulb

590

594
594
594
596
597
597
598
600
601
601
601
603
603
604

24.14 Example of a TxV Functioning with an Internal
Equalizer
604
24.15 TxV Functioning with External Equalizers 605
24.16 TxV Response to Load Changes
609
24.17 Selection of TxV Valves
609
24.18 Balanced-Port TxV
609
24.19 The Pressure-Limiting TxV
609
24.20 Servicing the TxV
609
24.21 Installing the Sensing Element
610
24.22 Step-Motor Expansion Valves
611
24.23 Algorithms and PID Controllers
614
24.24 The Automatic Expansion Valve
615
24.25 Automatic Expansion Valve Response
to Load Changes
616
24.26 Special Considerations for the TxV
and AxV
616
24.27 The Capillary Tube Metering Device
617
24.28 Operating Charge for the Capillary
Tube System
618

Unit 25 Special Refrigeration System components 621
25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
25.5
25.6
25.7
25.8
25.9
25.10
25.11
25.12
25.13
25.14
25.15
25.16
25.17
25.18
25.19
25.20
25.21
25.22
25.23
25.24
25.25
25.26
25.27
25.28
25.29
25.30
25.31
25.32
25.33
25.34
25.35
25.36
25.37
25.38

The Four Basic Components
Mechanical Controls
Two-Temperature Controls
Evaporator Pressure Control
Multiple Evaporators
Electric Evaporator Pressure-Regulating
Valve
Crankcase Pressure Regulator
Adjusting the CPR Valve
Relief Valves
Fan-Cycling Head Pressure Controls
Fan Speed Control for Controlling
Head Pressure
Air Volume Control for Controlling
Head Pressure
Condenser Flooding and Condenser
Splitting for Controlling Head Pressure
Electrical Controls
Pressure Switches
Low-Pressure Switch
Low-Pressure Control Applied as a
Thermostat
Automatic Pumpdown Systems
High-Pressure Control
Low-Ambient Fan Control
Oil Pressure Safety Control
The Defrost Cycle
Medium-Temperature Refrigeration
Random or Off-Cycle Defrost
Planned Defrost
Low-Temperature Evaporator Defrost
Internal Heat Defrost (Hot Gas and
Cool Gas Defrost)
External Heat Defrost
Defrost Termination and Fan Delay Control
Refrigeration Accessories
Receivers
The King Valve on the Receiver
Filter Driers
Refrigerant Check Valves
Refrigerant Sight Glasses
Liquid Refrigerant Distributors
Heat Exchangers
Suction-Line Accumulators

621
621
621
621
624
624
625
627
627
628
629
629
630
631
633
633
633
635
639
639
640
643
645
645
645
645
646
647
648
649
649
650
650
652
652
652
653
654



Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e

Contents
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover1
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover2
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - i
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - ii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - iii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Contents
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - v
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - vi
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - vii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - viii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - ix
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - x
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xi
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xiii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xiv
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xv
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xvi
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xvii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xviii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xix
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xx
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xxi
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xxii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xxiii
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - xxiv
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - 1
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - 2
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - 3
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Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Technology, 8e - Cover4
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