Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 29

Western
black-legged tick

Black-legged tick

larvae

nymph

adult

larvae

nymph

adult

Ticks shown actual size

© 2016 Cengage Learning®

Chapter 2

The nymphs of ticks are very small and
appear as specks on a human palm.

Figure 2-17

LIFE CYCLE OF THE BLACK-LEGGED TICK,
IXODES SCAPULARIS
WINTER

NYMPH
EGG

ADULT

FALL

EGGS DEPOSITED,
ADULTS DIE

1 month

Feeds Once, 3-4 days
(Mouse is preferred host)
LARVAE
Feeds Once, 2 days
(Mouse is preferred host)
SUMMER

© 2016 Cengage Learning®

SPRING

Feeds Once
(Deer is preferred
host)
3 weeks

Figure 2-18 The life cycle of the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis.

North-Central United States, and the Western black-legged tick (Ixodes
pacificus) spreads the disease on the Pacific Coast.
Ticks not known to transmit Lyme disease include Lone Star ticks
(Amblyomma americanum), the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis),
the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni), and the brown dog
tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus).
In the Northeast and Upper Midwest, white-footed mice serve as a reservoir for the Borrelia organism. These ticks have a two-year life cycle. See
Figure 2-18. They lay their eggs in the spring, and the larvae that emerge feed
on white-footed mice. The larvae then remain dormant during the winter and
develop into nymphs the following spring. The tick larvae pick up the bacteria
from the white-footed mouse and transmit it to humans. In the Pacific coastal
states of California, Oregon, and Washington, the Western black-legged tick
(Ixodes pacificus) is recognized as the carrier of the Borrelia organism. The
dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), a common California and Western
Oregon rodent, is the reservoir for the Borrelia organism in the West. Another
species of tick, Ixodes neotomae, can also be a carrier. This tick does not bite
humans, but it carries the organism that infects the woodrat. See Figure 2-19.
The first symptom of Lyme disease is the distinctive skin lesion that appears in three to 32 days after the tick bite. The lesion begins as a small red
spot that expands into a large irregular circular or oval-shaped area with a
red outer border. Other lesions may appear as the bacteria spreads within the

Safety

29



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition

Contents
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Cover1
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Cover2
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - iii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - iv
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Contents
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - vi
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - vii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - viii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - ix
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - x
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xi
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xiii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xiv
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xv
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xvi
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xvii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xviii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xix
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xx
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xxi
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xxii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 1
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Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 3
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Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 5
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