Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 30

Section I
Black-legged tick
I. scapularis

I. neotomae

Western black-legged tick
I. pacificus

Reservoir
Reservoir

Whitefooted
mouse

Humans

Humans

Duskyfooted
woodrat

In the Northeast and Upper Midwest, the white-footed mouse serves as
a reservoir for the Lyme disease bacteria. In Western areas, the dusky-footed woodrat
serves as one of the reservoirs for the bacteria.

Figure 2-19

skin; these lesions may itch and burn. Variations of the distinctive symptoms
may appear, including measles-like eruptions or hives; these lesions usually
disappear in about three weeks. Flu-like symptoms, including aching muscles, stiff neck, fatigue, fever, chills, painful joints, nausea, coughing, sore
throat, loss of appetite, swollen lymph glands, irritated eyes, and aversion to
light, may also be present. These symptoms too may disappear within three
weeks; however, the fatigue and muscle aches may last for several months. If
treatment with antibiotics is not started, the bacteria can spread throughout
the body and cause severe damage to the organs of the body. Arthritis conditions, with severe joint pain and swelling, and neurological problems may
occur, with shooting pains, numbness, or tingling in the hands or feet if untreated. These type conditions may develop months to years after the tick bite.
Anyone experiencing Lyme disease-like symptoms should contact a
doctor as soon as possible for diagnosis and treatment, which usually consists of antibiotics. A Lyme disease vaccine (Lymerix) was approved in 1998;
however, the vaccine was pulled from the market in 2002 because of poor
sales and concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the drug.
Lyme disease can affect a variety of species besides humans, including dogs
and cats. Up to 95 percent of dogs and many cats will not exhibit any symptoms.
Symptoms may be temporary or last for three to four days and then return
days or weeks later. Symptoms may include fever, decreased appetite, swollen,
painful joints, and lameness. Another symptom may be limping, which can be
mild at first, then worsen, and may shift from one leg to another.
Ticks can also spread a microscopic parasite of the Babesia species.
Baesia microti usually infects white-footed mice and other small
mammals. In recent years, Babesia microti has also have been found
in humans. The parasite is spread by black-legged ticks or deer ticks
(Ixodes scapularis). Humans may also become infected by receiving
contaminated blood through a blood transfusion, or a baby from an
infected mother during pregnancy or delivery.
Tick-borne transmission of B. microti primarily occurs in the
Northeast and Upper Midwest, particularly in parts of New England,
New York state, New Jersey, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. [See Figure 2-20.]
Many people who are infected with Babesia microti feel fine and do
not have any symptoms. Some people develop flu-like symptoms, such

Ā© 2016 Cengage LearningĀ®

30



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition

Contents
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Cover1
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Cover2
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - iii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - iv
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Contents
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - vi
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - vii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - viii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - ix
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - x
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xi
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xiii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xiv
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xv
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xvi
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xvii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xviii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xix
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xx
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xxi
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - xxii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 1
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Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 3
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 4
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 5
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