Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - 8

8

Section I
Although they possess these structures at some embryonic stage, these
characteristics may be altered or disappear in later stages of life.
Kingdoms are divided into classes. All animals discussed in this book
belong to one of the following five classes:
1. Mammalia is the class of vertebrates that possess mammary glands,
have a body that is more or less covered with hair, and possess a welldeveloped brain.
2. Reptilia is the class that includes snakes, lizards, and turtles. This class
is composed of cold-blooded vertebrates having lungs, an entirely bony
skeleton, a body covered with scales or horny plates, and a heart with
two atria and (usually) a single ventricle.
3. Amphibia is the class that includes frogs, toads, and salamanders. This
class is cold-blooded vertebrate animals with four limbs. Most do not
have scales and go through metamorphosis.
4. Aves is the class for birds. These are warm-blooded vertebrate animals
with two legs, wings, and feathers, and they lay eggs.
5. Osteichthyes are the bony fish. This is a large group of vertebrate animals that live in the water and have permanent gills for breathing, fins,
and a body usually covered with scales.
Linnaeus's system of naming species is called binomial nomenclature
and uses the Latin language. Each species has a name composed of two
words. The first word is the genus and is written with the first letter capitalized. The second name is the species and is written with a lowercase first
letter. The name is typically written in italics. The name can be shortened by
using only the first letter of the genus name followed by a period. The domesticated dog, for example, is named Canis familiaria or C. familiaria, where
Canis is the genus and familiaria is the species. In some cases, an organism
may have a subspecies name, and would then use trinomial nomenclature.
An example of a complete classification for the domestic dog would be as
follows:
1. Kingdom-Animalia-Animal kingdom
2. Phylum-Chordata-Animals with vertebrae
3. Class-Mammalia-Animals that suckle young
4. Order-Carnivora-Flesh or meat eaters
5. Family-Canidae-The dog family (includes wolves, fox, and coyotes)
6. Genus-Canis-dogs
7. Species-familiaria-domestic dog

woese's System
In 1990, Dr. Carl Woese and his colleagues at the University of Illinois proposed
that life be divided into three domains with six kingdoms. They proposed that
the Kingdom Monera be divided into two domains, Bacteria and Archaea.
Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic organisms (organisms that are single



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition

Contents
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Cover1
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Cover2
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - iii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - iv
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Contents
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - vi
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - vii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - viii
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - ix
Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - x
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Small Animal Care & Management - Fourth Edition - Cover4
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