Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 52

52

CHAPTER 3

|

Medical Conditions

KEY TERMS
u
u
u
u

anemia
appendicitis
asthma
coronary artery disease

u
u
u
u

diabetes mellitus
diabetic coma
epilepsy
exercise-induced asthma (EIA)

u
u
u
u

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
insulin shock
Marfan syndrome
sickle-cell anemia

INTRODUCTION
The treatment, recognition, and prevention of medical conditions are things that the
sports medicine team should be aware of and know how to handle. This chapter will
establish an understanding of the medical conditions that are part of the daily life of
athletes. These preexisting medical conditions in most cases will not stop an athlete
from participating, but the athlete will need to be monitored and proper emergency
procedures will need to be established.

MEDICAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING ATHLETES
Athletes are not always in perfect health, even when injury-free. Like everyone, athletes experience headaches, colds, flus, and other common ailments. It is also possible
for an athlete to have a medical condition that can create health disturbances during
the course of practice or play. Often such medical conditions can be managed so well
through medication and other treatments that it can become difficult to detect the
condition with simple observation. This is why a thorough and accurate documentation of health history is so important to the athletic trainer. Accurate and up-to-date
health records allow athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and the entire sports medicine team to prepare in advance for emergencies that may affect their athletes.
diabetes mellitus
Excess urine
production caused
by high blood
glucose (sugar)
levels.

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes occurs when a person has high blood sugar caused either by a complete
or partial decrease in the secession of insulin from the pancreas, or the cells do not
respond to the insulin that is produced. Patients will measure their blood sugar
throughout the day, the normal range being about
70 to 110 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood.
If they eat large amounts of carbohydrates the levels
may increase (see Figure 3-1).
The two types of diabetes have very similar
symptoms, including high blood sugar levels, excessive urine, and weight loss. The blood sugar levels
rise above 160 to 180 mg/dL, and sugar spills into the
urine. The kidneys extract additional water to dilute
the large amounts of sugar.
There are two kinds of diabetes: type 1, insulindependent diabetes mellitus, and type 2, which
is non-insulin-dependent. Type 1 is typically found
during childhood or adolescence, although it can also
develop in adults. It is a chronic condition in which
3-1 | Diabetic athletes should monitor their blood
the pancreas produces little to no insulin, a hormone
sugar levels frequently.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e

Contents
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Cover1
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Cover2
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - A
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - B
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - i
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - ii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - iii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - iv
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Contents
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - vi
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - vii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - viii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - ix
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - x
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xi
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Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 1
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