Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 56

56

CHAPTER 3

|

Medical Conditions

Symptoms: Symptoms may include wheezing or a high-pitched noise when breathing, chest pain, chest tightness, fatigue during exercise, dry cough, and/or stomach
cramps after exercise.
Immediate Treatment: The treatment will be the same as with asthma. Again,
remind your athletes that they are responsible for having their inhalers at all times.

Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy)
Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a term that describes a group of nervous system disorders that involve

A group of nervous
system disorders that
involve disturbed
rhythms of the
electrical impulses
that fire throughout
the cerebrum,
resulting in seizure
activity or abnormal
behavior.

disturbed rhythms of the electrical impulses that fire throughout the cerebrum, resulting in seizure activity or abnormal behavior. An epileptic seizure can range from a
minor attack, called a petit mal or absence seizure, to a major episode, which is called
a grand mal or generalized tonic-clonic seizure.
Symptoms: During a grand mal seizure, the individual will usually shake uncontrollably, fall to the ground, and lose consciousness. The person may defecate and/or
urinate, bite the tongue, or experience some other type of injury as a result of the
uncontrolled muscle spasms or shaking. Grand mal seizures often last from 2 to
5 minutes. In petit mal seizures, the affected person rarely falls, and the muscular
contractions may be less severe. These seizures are characterized by the sudden stopping of activity for several seconds to a few minutes due to loss of awareness of the
immediate surroundings or even a loss of consciousness. Whether or not consciousness is lost, the patient may have no memory of the seizure after it is over. Partial,
or focal, seizures are also possible. In these seizures, only a portion of the body is
affected and loss of consciousness may or may not occur.
Seizures can often be controlled with medication, allowing those with seizure
disorders to participate in a wide range of sports with little, if any, increased risk to
their health. However, people who are prone to seizures are generally advised to avoid
scuba diving, swimming alone, and participating in sports at great heights. This caution is because of the increased risk of injury if a seizure takes place during the activity.
Immediate Treatment: The main concern is to make sure that the victim of a seizure does not incur harm. Clear the area around the person who is having the seizure
so the person cannot get hurt or hurt anyone else. Loosen any restricting clothing.
As the caregiver, it is important to stay emotionally composed while caring for the
patient and keeping bystanders away. Make sure the victim's airway remains open.
Contact EMS.
Follow-up Treatment: Make sure the physician's orders are followed.

Appendicitis
Inflammation of the
appendix, producing
sudden onset of
abdominal pain
and other flu-like
symptoms.

Prevention: Athletes who take medication for a seizure disorder should follow the
prescription in accordance with the physician's orders. In a school setting, medications must be kept and administered according to school policy. The athletic trainer
should always be aware of athletes who are susceptible to seizures by making sure
that health histories are thoroughly conducted and documented.

Appendicitis
The appendix is a narrow worm-shaped tube that attaches to the cecum, a portion of
the large intestine. Appendicitis is a medical emergency that will require surgery to
remove the appendix. Its highest incidence is in males between the ages of 15 and 25.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e

Contents
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Cover1
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Cover2
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - A
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - B
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - i
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - ii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - iii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - iv
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Contents
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - vi
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - vii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - viii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - ix
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - x
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xi
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xiii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xiv
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xv
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Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xvii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xviii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xix
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