Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 58

58

CHAPTER 3

|

Medical Conditions

Marfan syndrome
Genetic disorder
of the connecting
tissue that can
cause a weakening
of the valves and
aorta of the heart.
Hypertrophic
cardiomyopathy
Abnormal thickness
in the ventricle wall
making it hard for
blood to leave the
heart.
Coronary artery
disease
A build-up of plaque
inside the arteries,
causing a decrease
in oxygen-rich blood
flow to the heart.

Marfan Syndrome
This is a genetic disorder of the connecting tissue. It can cause a weakness of the
valve and aorta that can lead to a rupture. Individuals with Marfan syndrome are
usually tall with an arm span that exceeds the person's height. Their joints will be
hypermobile and they may have a sunken (pigeon) chest, scoliosis, and an increased
chance of hernia and stretch marks.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an abnormal thickness of the ventricle wall, mak-

ing it harder for the blood to leave the heart and forcing the heart to work harder.
This is the leading cause of death in young active persons.

Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary artery disease involves a build-up of plaque inside the coronary arties,
causing a decrease in oxygen-rich blood flow to the heart.

Note: Non-cardiac causes of sudden death include the use of drugs such as alcohol,
cocaine, amphetamines, and erythropoietin.
Symptoms: Common indications may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, sweating, dizziness, and/or unusual fatigue during or after exercise.
Immediate Treatment: Regardless of the cause or underlying condition of the
heart, cardiac arrest is always treated the same way: contact EMS and begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This is a life-threatening emergency.
Follow-up Treatment: Make sure the physician's orders are followed.
Prevention: This is not a preventable condition.

Sickle-cell anemia
Occurs from having
half-moon-shaped
red blood cells,
which inhibits the
passage of blood
through the small
blood vessels,
causing a clogging
of the vessels.

Anemia
The condition of
having a lowerthan-normal number
of red blood cells.

Sickle-Cell Anemia
Sickle-cell anemia is most commonly seen African Americans, affecting about 1 in

every 12, but it has also been seen in the Native American and Mediterranean populations. This condition occurs due to having sickle- or quarter-moon-shaped red blood
cells, which inhibits the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, causing a
clogging of the vessels. This in turn causes a decrease of the transportation of oxygen.
A sickle cell's life span is 15-20 days, whereas the life span of a normal red blood cell
is 120 days. This short life span can cause severe anemia. A person with sickle-cell
trait may be able to participate in sports and never encounter any problem. Anemia
occurs when the body does not produce enough red blood cells to provide oxygen
for the body tissues.
Symptoms: Sickle-cell crisis (collapse) can be caused by altitude, intense exercise,
heat, high fever, dehydration, and asthma; all of these can increase the chances and/or
worsen the complications. It can occur even when exercise is not intense.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e

Contents
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Cover1
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Cover2
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - A
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - B
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - i
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - ii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - iii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - iv
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Contents
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - vi
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - vii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - viii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - ix
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - x
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xi
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xiii
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Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xviii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xix
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