Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 59

CHAPTER 3

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The athlete may have muscle pain, cramping, abnormal weakness, undue fatigue,
or shortness of breath. Anemia is often confused with heat cramping, where muscles
tighten up; with sickling there is no muscle tightening. Heat-cramping pain is more
excruciating and the muscle will "lock up," whereas a sickling athlete will slump
because of muscle weakness. With heat cramps, the muscles will be visibly contracted, whereas the sickling athlete will lay fairly still and the muscles will look and
feel normal.
Immediate Treatment: If the athlete collapses, treat as a medical emergency and
call 911. Calm and cool the athlete.
Follow-up Treatment: Make sure the physician's orders are followed.
Prevention: Have the training program be gradual with a longer period of rest.
It is important that these athletes participate in pre-season as well as a year-round
monitored strength and conditioning program. They should be excluded from performance tests, such as mile runs and serial sprints. These athletes can set their own
pace and will do fine. These athletes are encouraged to report any symptoms immediately, such as fatigue, difficulty breathing, and leg or low back pain. If symptoms
occur you should assume the athlete is sickling.

Common Viruses
Common illnesses, such as a cold or influenza, are generally not considered to be
emergencies. However, they can still pose a threat to the athlete's health and performance. In fact, because of their contagious nature, these illnesses can threaten the
health and performance of an entire team! There is no cure for the common cold, or
for influenza. Treatment for either type of virus generally focuses on palliative measures, aimed at making the patient more comfortable.
Symptoms: Both viruses can cause respiratory symptoms such as a runny or stuffy
nose, sore throat, headache, cough, and fatigue. If fever or body aches are present, the
illness is more likely to be a flu virus than a cold, but there are exceptions to this rule
of thumb. Some flu viruses affect the gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea, diarrhea,
vomiting, dizziness, fever, and chills. People suffering from such viruses will experience great discomfort and should be monitored carefully. Dehydration is always a
possibility when vomiting, diarrhea, or high fever is present.
Immediate Treatment: Because antibiotics are not effective against viruses, the
primary means of relief are rest, over-the-counter (OTC) cold and flu remedies, and
time-most of these viruses last no more than a few days. If symptoms do not improve after 5 days or if the athlete has a fever or severe diarrhea, the athlete should
be referred to a physician. In all cases, make sure the athlete stays hydrated, especially when vomiting or diarrhea occurs. Further, the athlete should be advised of the
regulations that apply to the use of OTC medications and participation in specific
events. Some medications have been banned at certain levels of competition, and an
athlete's use of these medications could lead to disqualification. In a school setting,
OTC medications may not be allowed on school grounds, or may only be dispensed
by the school nurse.

Medical Conditions

59



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e

Contents
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Cover1
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Cover2
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - A
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - B
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - i
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - ii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - iii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - iv
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Contents
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - vi
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - vii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - viii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - ix
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - x
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xi
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xiii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xiv
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xv
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xvi
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xvii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xviii
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xix
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - xx
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 1
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 2
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 3
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 4
Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - 5
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Sports Medicine Essentials, 3e - Cover4
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