American Rifleman - October 2016 - 62

GUNS ON THE BORDER U.S. MODEL OF 1903 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE & U.S. MODEL OF 1905 BAYONET pillage and plunder. While the United States eventually mended fences with Carranza and officially recognized his government, Villa viewed this as betrayal and vowed retaliation against the Americans. For the next couple of years, Villa and his henchmen crossed into the United States on numerous occasions and stole livestock and other valuables. Eventually, the situation devolved into more serious violence when followers of Villa murdered 17 U.S. citizens traveling on a train in Mexico. This, understandably, caused a furor in the United States. An attack on the town of Columbus, N.M., on March 9, 1916, during which 18 Americans were killed, resulted in such public outcry that President Woodrow Wilson was forced to take decisive action. Wilson directed the U.S. Army to pursue Villa into Mexico and exact revenge for his actions. General Fredrick Funston, commander of the Army's Southern Department, had telegraphed the War Dept. the day after the Columbus attack: "I urgently recommend that American troops be given authority to pursue Villa into Mexican Territory [in pursuit of] hostile Mexican bandits who raid American territory. So long as the border is a shelter for them they will continue to harass our ranches and towns to our chagrin." General Funston's recommendation was approved, and a "Punitive Expedition" was organized by the U.S. Army for the purpose of pursuing Villa and his men, and punishing them for their actions against American lives and property. General John J. Pershing, a veteran of the 62 Indian Wars, the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, was appointed commander of the expedition. On March 15, 1916, Pershing led a contingent of American troops across the border into Mexico. Eventually, some 10,000 troops were involved in the campaign. The Punitive Expedition was notable for its use of aircraft and motor vehicles, but both proved inadequate for their intended purposes. The logistics of the campaign soon became chaotic. There were numerous small-scale skirmishes with Villa's followers with mixed results, and the campaign never really achieved its stated goals. But the blunders that resulted proved to have a silver lining as they vividly pointed out areas that the U.S. Army needed to address and solve, especially since the nation would be at war in Europe less than a year later. The Punitive Expedition has been referred to as a dress rehearsal for World War I. Like many such endeavors, thankfully, the "main event" profited from mistakes made during the rehearsal. The Mexican campaign was also a chance for U.S. infantry arms to be evaluated under actual field conditions. U.S. Model 1903 Springfield Rifle The '03 Springfield was adopted to correct the deficiencies found in the U.S. Krag rifle in .30-40 Krag when it went up against Spanish troops armed with Model 1893 Mausers during the Spanish-American War of 1898. The Mausers proved to be superior to the Krag in many respects, and the U.S. Ordnance Dept. was forced to look for a new service rifle, even though the Krag had been adopted less than a decade earlier. A new bolt-action repeating rifle, heavily influenced by the Mauser, was selected to replace the Krag. It was standardized as the "U.S. Rifle, Caliber .30 Model of 1903." The main advantages of the M1903 over the Krag were a stronger bolt with two The U.S M1903 Springfield rifle, shown here with "Buffalo Soldiers" (l.), proved itself during the 1916 campaign pursuing Pancho Villa (opposite, top). Fielded in smaller numbers were '03s fitted with both Model 1913 (r.) and Model 1908 Warner & Swasey "Musket Sights." OCTOBER 2016 AMERICAN RIFLEMAN Author's collection

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Rifleman - October 2016

Contents
American Rifleman - October 2016 - Cover1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - Cover2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - Contents
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 3
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 4
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 5
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 6
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 7
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American Rifleman - October 2016 - C1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - C2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - E1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - E2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - MW1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - MW2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - S1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - S2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - SW1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - SW2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - W1
American Rifleman - October 2016 - W2
American Rifleman - October 2016 - 100
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