IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 13

By Komal Shetye and Tom Overbye

COURTESY OF NASA

Modeling
and Analysis of
GMD Effects on
Power Systems
An overview of the impact
on large-scale power systems.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MELE.2015.2480356
Date of publication: 2 December 2015

2325-5987/15©2015IEEE

EOMAGNETICALLY INDUCED CURrents (GICs), caused by geomagnetic
disturbances (GMDs) (Figure 1), have
the potential to affect the operation of
interconnected electric power systems.
There are two key risks associated with GICs in the
bulk electric system. The first is the potential for physical damage to transmission system devices such as
high-voltage (HV) transformers. The second is the loss
of reactive power support, potentially leading to a voltage collapse. The focus of this article is on the latter
risk, presenting an overview of modeling GMDs into
the power flow to assess the impact on large-scale
power systems.
GMDs cause variations in the Earth's magnetic
field. These changes induce quasi-dc electric fields
(with frequencies far below 1 Hz) in the Earth. The
electric fields cause GICs to flow in the Earth's crust
(up to depths of hundreds of kilometers) and also in
other conductors such as the HV electric transmission
grid. In HV transformers, the quasi-dc GICs cause an
offset of the ac flux that can lead to half-cycle saturation. This saturation leads to harmonics, reactive
power losses, and an increase in transformer heating.

G

IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / d ec em be r 2 0 1 5

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015

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IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover4
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