IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 21

The value of grounding resistance
depends on the construction
of the substation grounding
grid and on the local soil
and earth conditions.

studies considering the effects of GMDs. However, there
are still certain sources of uncertainty in the underlying
GIC model. In addition to the assumptions used in the
modeling of electric fields, there are practical issues such
as inadequate data on transformer K factors and, at
times, unavailability of substation grounding resistance
values. Work is ongoing to validate the GIC calculation and
data estimation models described in this article. Actual
transformer GIC measurements from monitoring devices
similar to Figure 12 are being used. Magnetic field data
from available magnetometers can be used to estimate
electric fields during a GMD event. Limitations such as the
lack of major GMD events and the relatively small number
of such measurement locations are a hurdle to validation.
However, GIC measurements taken during minor to moderate GMD events, which occur more often, are proving to
be helpful. Electric field interpolation techniques can be
used to address the issue of sparsely available magnetometer data. Despite the challenges, validation continues to
be an active area of work to continuously improve the
understanding and modeling of the complex phenomenon of GMDs.

For Further reading
"2012 special reliability assessment interim report: Effects of
geomagnetic disturbances on the bulk power system," North
American Electric Reliability Corporation, Feb. 2012.
D. H. Boteler and R. J. Pirjola, "Modeling geomagnetically
induced currents produced by realistic and uniform electric
fields," IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 13, pp. 1303-1308, Oct. 1998.
J. G. Kappenman, "Geomagnetic storms and their impacts on
the U.S. power grid," Metatech Corp. Rep. MetaR-319, Jan. 2010.
J. G. Kappenman, "A perfect storm of planetary proportions," IEEE Spectr., vol. 49, pp. 26-31, Feb. 2012.
R. A. Walling and A. H. Khan, "Characteristics of transformer exciting current during geomagnetic disturbances,"
IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 6, pp. 1707-1713, Oct. 1991.

K. Zheng, D.H. Boteler, R. Pirjola, L. G. Liu, R. Becker,
L. Marti, S. Boutilier, and S. Guillon, "Effects of system characteristics on geomagnetically induced currents," IEEE Trans.
Power Deliv., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 890-898, Apr. 2014.
T. J. Overbye, T. R. Hutchins, K. Shetye, J. Weber, and
S. Dahman, "Integration of geomagnetic disturbance modeling into the power flow: A methodology for large-scale system studies," in Proc. North American Power Symp. (NAPS), Sept.
2012, pp. 1-7.
Transmission System Planned Performance for Geomagnetic Disturbance Events, North American Electric Reliability Corpo-

ration Standard TPL-007-1 , 2014.

biographies
Komal Shetye (shetye1@illinois.edu) received her B.Tech.
degree in electrical engineering from the University of
Mumbai, India, in 2009, and her M.S. degree in electrical
and computer engineering from the University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign in 2011. She is currently a senior
research engineer at the Information Trust Institute, a
multidisciplinary research center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her current research interests
include power system dynamics and stability and power
system geomagnetic disturbance analysis. She is a Member of the IEEE.
Tom Overbye (overbye@illinois.edu) received his B.S.,
M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the
University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is currently the Fox
Family Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His
current research interests include power system visualization, power system dynamics, power system cybersecurity, and power system geomagnetic disturbance analysis. He is a Fellow of the IEEE.

IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / d ec em be r 2 0 1 5

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