IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 27

long period. Relay misoperations may occur for some
relay schemes responding to peak value voltage/current
inputs or depending harmonics restraint for proper operation. Hence, harmonics monitoring can provide insightful assessment on the GMD impacts on substation equipment and system operations.
Modern intelligent electronic device (IED) relays for
transformer protection can provide information on second, fourth, and fifth harmonics currents, and it is preferable to use the capability of the existing IED relays to
minimize the hardware installation and maintenance
costs associated with harmonics monitoring. If the existing transformer protection uses old electric-mechanic
relays such as BDD relays, a standalone harmonics-monitoring device can be installed to provide harmonics
monitoring to the 50th order, as well as Mvar, MW, and
voltage information. Oscillography waveforms can also
be captured from a transformer IED relay triggered by the
GIC level. The waveforms can be stored in the local computer and uploaded to a centralized server for postevent
correlation analysis.

Combined GMD Index
In addition to the GIC and harmonics monitoring, it is recommended that NOAA GMD warnings, transformer temperature rise, and transformer reactive power loss be monitored to enhance the situational awareness of system operators to defend against a severe GMD event. A combined
GMD Index comprising these monitoring parameters helps
operators take appropriate actions effectively and in a timely manner. The existing GMD operating procedure can be
further refined based, in part, on the combined GMD index.

Visualization of Monitoring
Data and GMD Event Reporting
A PI Historian database is used to store GMD monitoring
data in a centralized location for creating real-time displays
for operators and for postevent analysis. The monitoring
data stored in the database include GMD K-indices, GIC levels and durations, harmonics data, voltage fluctuations,
transformer reactive power losses, transformer temperature rises, and geomagnetic field measurements, so a GMD
event report including any of these measurements can be

RMC20
GPS Receiver

GIC Relay

GIC Transducer

(a)

(b)

Harmonics Monitoring
GIC Relay

(c)

(d)

Figure 5. GHM: (a) a GIC sensor, (b) a GIC relay cabinet, (c) the front of a GIC relay, and (d) a harmonic monitoring relay. (Photos courtesy of Frank Fowler.)

IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / d ec em be r 2 0 1 5

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015

IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover1
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