IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 28

Transmission
operators monitor
the GIC and
harmonics
information from
multiple sites via an
existing supervisory
control and data
acquisition system.

generated and correlated to solar
storm activities (K-index or dB/dt).
As shown in Figure 6, K-indices
from NOAA observatories in Boulder,
Colorado, and Fredericksburg, Virginia, together with Kp-index, are monitored and displayed as gauge readings on a GMD dashboard so that
operators can easily identify if any
severe GMD storm is forecast and
take appropriate actions prescribed
in the GMD operating procedure.
Not only can an operator monitor
the GMD activities and the impacts
on the power system, but any subscribers to the GMD monitoring system also have remote access to GMD
dashboards via a GMD web portal. As an example, Figure 7
shows the GIC measurements during a 24-h period from
multiple locations. Similar displays, such as transformer
Mvar losses and geomagnetic field measurements, are also
provided by default via the GMD web portal. Additional displays for temperature rises, voltage fluctuations, etc., can be
easily configured to meet an individual subscriber's needs.
An automated GMD event reporting and notification tool
has been implemented to generate GMD event reports, which
are posted to a Sharepoint portal, and to provide automatic
notifications (e.g., e-mail and/or text message) based on
defined parameters to alert subscribers, providing timely dissemination of the GMD information among stakeholders. For
instance, a GMD event report will be generated if NOAA
issues a GMD K-index warning or alert message (e.g., K > 6),
or if a GIC measurement exceeds a preset warning threshold. Such a report includes the maximum and minimum
GIC measurements together with time stamps during a
24-h period from all monitoring locations. A quarterly or

6

4

In 2011, AEP worked with a consultant to model sensitivity
of the AEP system transformers (138 kV and above) to
GMD. Using proprietary software, information was provided to indicate the greatest predicted GIC for each location
for GMD scenarios of various E-field orientations and
intensities. This supported initial placement of permanent
monitoring facilities for GIC.

5

6

4

10

0

(b)

3

2

1

3

3

2

0

1

1

10

(a)

High

9

\\scadapi\index_Boulder = 3;
2/25/2015 9:09:29 AM

Low

8

9

9

\\scadapi\index_fredericksburg = 2;
2/25/2015 9:09:29 AM

I E E E E l e c t r i f i cati o n M agaz ine / december 2015

6
7

8

High

Low

5
Average

7

8

High

Figure 6. K-Index gauges: (a) Fredericksburg, (b) Boulder, and (c) the Kp index.

28

Gauge

Average
7

2

GIC System Modeling

0

Average

Low

GIC flow simulation is an important
part of AEP's GMD impact assessment effort to address the potential
negative impacts on the reliable
operation of AEP transmission systems. The GIC system modeling is
one of the most critical steps to assess system GMD vulnerabilities. AEP has been collaborating with the NERC, the
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), power system software vendors, and others to develop GIC simulation models for the AEP grid so that a detailed analysis of probable
GIC flows in all EHV transformers under various storm scenarios can be performed. The simulation results will be
used to refine the GMD operating procedure, provide useful
information for deploying additional GIC monitors, and
develop appropriate mitigation measures if needed.

10

5

GIc System modeling and
Gmd Impact Assessment

Gauge

Gauge
4

monthly GMD activity summary
report will be distributed to all the
subscribers of the GMD notification
system. The tool can also facilitate
GMD information sharing with
regional reliability coordinators or
others externally to AEP in a controlled/authenticated manner.

\\scadapi\ik_planetary = 2;
2/25/2015 9:09:29 AM
(c)



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015

IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 3
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IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover4
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2014
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