IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 38

Table 1. dVP's Gmd Situational-Awareness Forecast System definitions (Partial).
Forecast

G-Scale

GMD Situational-Awareness Forecast System

Watch

G1

Minor GMD forecasted-no power-system impact expected (date information). Further information will be sent only if storm activity exceeds G5 threshold.

Watch

G4 or greater

Minor to severe GMD forecasted (date information). System conditions will be monitored in
real time. Operating procedures are in effect.

Warning

G1

Minor storm activity forecasted (K5)-no power-system impact expected ("valid from"-"valid
to" information).

Warning

G3 or greater

Storm activity forecasted (K7 or greater, "valid from"-"valid to" information). This event does
not pose any risk unless it materialized into K9 or G5 event. If the storm level reaches K9
(G5), potential minor/moderate/high impact may occur in respect to the storm strength. System conditions must be assessed in real time. System operations are directed by DVP solar
magnetic disturbances procedures and PJM emergency operations.

Alert

G1

Minor storm activity threshold exceeds (K5)-no power-system impact expected (issue time).

Alert

G5

Storm activity has reached K9 level (issue time). Potential minor/moderate/high impact expected. System conditions must be assessed in real time. System operations are directed by
DVP solar magnetic disturbances procedures and PJM emergency operations.

of Energy, IEEE, PJM, Edison Electric Institute, North
American Electric Reliability Corporation, etc.

Solar-event Situational Awareness
DVP's system operations center (SOC) has integrated the
GMD forecast from NOAA and rescaled NOAA forecasts to
reflect the associated risk in DVP's service territory. In
addition, DVP has installed GIC, harmonic, and transformer dissolved-gas analysis (DGA) monitors that achieve a
real-time observability of system/equipment operating
conditions during GMD events.

DVP's GMD Situational-Awareness Forecast System
System operators (SOs) and management are able to
obtain NOAA's real-time forecast by accessing NOAA's

GIC Visualization

Figure 4. DVP's GMD visualization tool. (Source: DVP.)

38

I E E E E l e c t r i f i cati o n M agaz ine / december 2015

forecast site or through e-mail subscription. The forecast
includes two scales of indication, the K-index and G-scale
(Figure 3) and different types of lead times (associated to
the severity of the event). With the guidance from NOAA,
SOs can assess the possible impact of the coming storm to
the grid and prepare accordingly. DVP has collaborated in
the development of the forecast services.
NOAA's GMD forecasts contemplate the entire North
American continent with general spatial information and
do not necessarily specify power-system impacts. In this
case, DVP has developed its own situational-awareness
system (Table 1). It translates and maps NOAA's forecasts
to reflect its risk to an impending GMD event. Major subscribers-DVP management, government-affairs personnel, and SOs-will receive alerts that address possible
impacts to the grids.
DVP works to actively document its
own solar magnetic disturbances procedures with respect to storm severities. The procedures comply with PJM's
Normal
Manual 13-Emergency Operations.
Low Alarm
Based on the storm forecasts and local
Medium Alarm
GIC sensor measurements, SOs
High Alarm
No Data
achieve different levels of control,
including recording storm events,
monitoring system voltage profiles,
monitoring susceptible GMD-influenced locations in DVP's service territory, monitoring GSU and transmission
transformers for potential overheating
conditions, adjusting equipment outage and maintenance schedules, and
preparing possible generation re-dispatch and load-shedding plans in
response to severe GMD scenarios.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015

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