IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 47

image couryesy of Nasa

posture) to be considered for
storms K7 and above. Such actions
included reducing loading at interconnections, facilities, and critical
transmission circuits; increasing
spinning reactive capacity; and
considering the impact of tripping
large capacitor banks and static
var compensators. Control-room
alarms were set on the basis of GIC
measurements, but control actions
were limited to situational awareness. By 2003, a new eight-station
GIC detection network replaced
the original one, and new monitors were added over
time, with 17 GIC monitors in place today (see Figure 1).
During cycle 23, Hydro One cooperated with the geomagnetic laboratory of NRCan in the development of realtime GIC calculation software using geomagnetic-field
measurements as input. At the time, being an industry

partner, Hydro One's contribution
was limited to providing GIC data
and making recommendations for
the use of such a software application. This early GIC solver used a
fixed-network configuration and
resided in an NRCan server. Knowing the estimated GIC flow in a
network, which may or may not
reflect the exact state of the network in real time, did not exactly
provide more information for situational awareness than actual
GIC measurements, and the realtime simulator was not considered a suitable controlroom tool at the time.
Things started to change around 2008 in preparation
for sunspot cycle 24. Recalling outages based on GMD
forecasts was costly and inconvenient. Interest in a realtime application that could provide information to carry

Transformer hot-spot
heating calculations
also use recursive
convolution
techniques for
computational
speed.

IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / d ec em be r 2 0 1 5

47



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015

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