IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 50

function that relates geomagnetic and geoelectric fields.
The use of recursive convolution techniques rather than
fast Fourier transform methods significantly improves
computational speed. Transformer hot-spot heating calculations also use recursive convolution techniques for computational speed.

Operator Training and
Interface design

A limitation of version 1.0 of the XSW application is its reliance on a single geomagnetic-field data feed. The loss of
this single data feed would reduce
the application to just reporting
measured SCADA and GIC values
from monitoring stations. The second problem is that the Ontario
service territory is physically large,
and the geomagnetic field measured at the NRCan geomagnetic
laboratory in Ottawa will likely be
different than the geomagnetic field
in other parts of Ontario. To address
both issues, a network of six additional magnetometers will be
installed in 2015-2016, as shown in
Figure 1. These magnetometers will
be located in spatially and physiographically diverse locations geographically close to GIC monitoring
stations. In addition to increasing
the security and accuracy of the
system, collocating geomagneticfield and GIC measurements will
allow the validation and tuning of the different Earth
models used in the application.

remarks
The Hydro One real-time GMD management system is
unique and possibly the most advanced set of tools to
guide operational responses to a GMD event. It has been an

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

170
Temperature 160
150
140
130
120
110

GIC

Temperature (°)

200
190
180

:4
0
02

:2
0
02

:0
0
02

:4
0
01

:2
0
01

:0
0

100
90

01

GIC (A /Phase)

220
200

:4
0

Going Forward

A web-based
graphical user
interface was
developed to
manage and display
the information
generated by the
solver, and version
1.0 was put into
service in 2012.

The XSW application can also be used
to play back a GMD event with a geomagnetic-field time series record,
regardless of its sampling rate. This
option has proven useful in operator
training, where actual GMD event
measurements can be scaled up to
simulate a GMD storm of any severity.
Triggered alarms are presented to the
operators, as shown in Figure 5, and
the operators can become familiarized
and practice situational responses
with corresponding preplanned mitigation actions. This also provides the
means to simulate past storms to better study system characteristics and
determine future best control actions.
One of the challenges of a controlroom application is avoiding information overload. Although calculated quantities are available for perusal, all relevant information is boiled down to a
change in the color of the circuits on the basis of predefined
GIC-scale (from green to red) transformer heating and
capacitor harmonic overload alarms. Since the estimation
of capacitor harmonic currents is rather coarse and conservative, the corresponding alarms are presented as warnings

00

for situational awareness. Transformer hot-spot heating
alarms require control action.

Time (UT)
Figure 3. The magnitude of GIC(t) per phase (red) and metallic hot
spot temperature (blue).

50

I E E E E l e c t r i f i cati o n M agaz ine / december 2015

Figure 4. The different physiographic regions in Ontario. (Map courtesy of Google.)



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