IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 51

Figure 5. The XSW application in playback/training mode.

evolutionary effort, firmly grounded
on decades of engineering experience. There is still much work to do in
terms of refining/validating Earth
models and obtaining more accurate
and less conservative transformer
thermal models, but we have come a
long way from the early days of passive recording of GIC.

One mitigation
action to reduce
GIC in a transformer
station is to bypass
series compensation
capacitor banks.

For Further reading
L. Marti, A. Rezaei-Zare, and A. Narang,
"Simulation of transformer hotspot
heating due to geomagnetically induced currents," IEEE Trans.
Power Deliv., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 320 -327, Jan. 2013.
L. Marti, C. Yiu, A. Rezaei-Zare, and D. Boteler, "Simulation
of geomagnetically induced currents with piecewise layeredearth models," IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1886-
1893, Aug. 2014.
L. Marti, "Effects of series compensation capacitors on
geomagnetically induced currents," IEEE Trans. Power Deliv.,
vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 2032-2033, Aug. 2014.

biographies
Luis Marti (Luis.Marti@HydroOne.com) received his M.A.Sc.
and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering in 1983 and 1987,
respectively, from the University of British Columbia, Canada.
He joined Ontario Hydro (now Hydro One Networks) in 1989,

where he is currently the director of reliability studies, strategy, and compliance
and responsible for the Special Studies
group. His research/study activities
include the development of models for
the family of ElectroMagnetic Transients
Programs, geomagnetically induced current simulation, grounding, induction
coordination, electromagnetic-field
issues pertaining to transmission and
distribution networks, and technical
issues around the connection of renewable generation in distribution networks.
He has participated in a number of Canadian and international technical organizations such as the Canadian Standards
Association, IEEE, and International Council on Large Electric
Systems. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and an adjunct professor at
the University of Western Ontario, the University of Waterloo,
and Ryerson University.
Cynthia Yiu (Cyntia.Yiu@HydroOne.com) received her
B.A.Sc. degree in systems design engineering and her
M.A.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. From 2006 to 2009, she
worked at General Electric, designing and developing algorithms for real-time embedded protective relay applications. In 2009, she joined Hydro One Networks and is
currently working in the Special Studies group.

IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / d ec em be r 2 0 1 5

51


http://B.A.Sc http://M.A.Sc http://M.A.Sc

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