IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 54

Ximeng
gb

ge

ei

n

Baotou

Xilin

ng

an

Sa

Zh

The North China-Central ChinaEast China Power Grid
(Sanhua Grid)

Wulan

Sh

Jiefang

un

Jingwest
Shi

Shanbei

n

g

Lian

i
g

in

nt

La

os

ia

ai

gh

an

Miao

Q

Jinhua

Fuzhou

Fengyi

g

Jinxian

Zh

Pin

an
sh
ng

Yueyang
Nanchang
a
Xingsh
a
ngsh
Cha
Liuyang

i

e
eb

Shipai
Huan

Sh

W

en

Xiangcheng

hu
Wu uzhou
S
Han

a
uh

gm

Jin

Yandu

ia
n

Pi
ud
Zh

Long

an

an

Xuzhou
ei kou
b
u
Zh Zhou
Huainan

Wann

bei

Wu

g

Zhon

xi

Mizhou
Feng
ou
izh
Ta
Nanjing

Boquan

W

Changle

i

hi

n

Douli

Jinan

gz

e

xia
Yu

Yu ou
sh
gqing

Chon

n

Lesha

ao

qi

Yu

shou
Chang
Siyuan

Tong

o

Dongp

Nantian

yang

Nan

yi

be
Yu

an

ih
Ba

Nanzhong

Wu

ng

Ch

Jincheng

Yaan

g

Ca

Jiuan

an

Xin

Jing

Hengan

1,000 kV Substations

Yaante

ang

Peng

Jinzhong

500 kV Substations

Anci

zhu

i
be
Jin

1,000 kV Transmission Lines
500 kV Transmission Lines

yi

Mengxi

t
eas
Jing
Pingan
Xiang
he
Tianjin
Dagang
Boxing
Wenshao
Weifang

Figure 1. The Sanhua UHV grid, planned for 2020.

component. The largest value of the northward component was 0.8896 V/km, while that of the eastward component was 0.3026 V/km. This means that the GIC problem in mid- and low-latitude areas is different from that
in high-latitude areas, at least in terms of the driving
source and characteristics of ionospheric disturbance.
The conclusion that GIC is larger in eastward transmission lines than in northward lines, unfortunately, does
not hold in mid- and low-latitude areas. Moreover, in GIC
risk assessment for power grids in mid- and low-latitude
areas, the possibility of GIC induction in northward and
eastward transmission lines should be considered equal;
in other words, the direction where the transmission line
is headed has nothing to do with GIC induction. Also, the
calculation of geoelectric-field intensities in Xibei,
Guangdong, and Jiangsu have all resulted in horizontal
components close to 1 V/km, and the geomagnetic storm
in November 2004 was not the strongest one in the 23rd
solar cycle. Therefore, the research team proposed a geoelectric-field value of 1 V/km for GIC risk assessment in
the UHV power grid in China.
As for the 1,000-kV power grid, it is noted that transmission lines in a 1,000-kV power grid use 500-mm2 eightbundle conductors, which is different from those of the
500-kV power grid. Figures 3 and 4 show, respectively, the
transmission lines and the conductors used in a 1,000-kV

54

I E E E E l e c t r i f i cati o n M agaz ine / december 2015

power grid. The 500-mm2, eight-bundle conductor has a
resistance per unit length of 0.007265  Ω/km. Assuming
that all conductors in the same voltage level have the
same resistance per unit length and that the geoelectric
field intensity is 1 V/km, we established a GIC calculation
model of the grid shown in Figure 1 that consists of the
UHV network and the 500-kV network connected with
UHV substations. In this model, the GIC Benchmark,
which was developed jointly by the Electric Power
Research Institute, Natural Resource Canada, the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, and the Finnish Meteorological Institute, was adopted (Horton, 2012). We arrived at
the calculation result of GIC values in the UHV grid and
500-kV grid, which also provided us with insight into the
influence of GIC from the 500-kV grid on GIC in the 1,000-kV
substations (Guo, 2015).
The result revealed a tangible influence of GICs in
transformer neutral points in 500- and 1,000-kV substations when GICs in 500- and 1,000-kV transmission lines
interact with GICs in 1,000-kV transformer neutral
points. This causes the GICs to increase in transformer
neutral points in some substations but decrease in others. Overall, however, it is the GICs in transmission lines
in the highest voltage level that determine the overall
GIC level in transformer neutral points, i.e., transmission
line resistance is the determining factor. It should be



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015

IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 4
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 5
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 6
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 7
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 8
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 9
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 10
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 11
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 12
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 13
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 14
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 15
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 16
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 17
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 18
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 19
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 20
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 21
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 22
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 23
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 24
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 25
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 26
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 27
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 28
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 29
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 30
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 31
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 32
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 33
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 34
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 35
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 36
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 37
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 38
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 39
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 40
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 41
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 42
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 43
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 44
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 45
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 46
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 47
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 48
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 49
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 50
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 51
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 52
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 53
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 54
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 55
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 56
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 57
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 58
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 59
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 60
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 61
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 62
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 63
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 64
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2013
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2013
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com