IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 7

of different levels of geomagnetic activity falls off with geomagnetic latitude.
Geomagnetic latitude is derived from a
coordinate system centered on the geomagnetic pole rather than the geographic pole. Because of the tilt of the
Earth's magnetic-field axis, power systems in North America are at a higher
geomagnetic latitude than other parts of
the world with the same geographic latitude. During large geomagnetic disturbances, the auroral zone around the
geomagnetic pole expands, bringing the
auroral electrojets and the geomagnetic
activity they produce down to the midlatitude locations of many power systems in Canada and the United States.
The other location parameter is the
geological setting of the power system.
The resistivity of different types of rock
is determined by their water content.
Dense granites, such as those in the
Canadian shield in Ontario and Qu├ębec,
have high resistivity, while sedimentary
rocks have lower resistivity. Below the
surface rock, the Earth's crust is resistive, but, with increasing depth, the
increase in pressure and temperature
cause partial melting, resulting in lower
resistivities in the Earth's mantle. Multilayer models of the Earth's resistivity
can be built up to represent the onedimensional variation of resistivity with
depth and used to calculate the relation
between electric and magnetic fields at
the Earth's surface. Lateral variations in
the resistivity can also produce local
enhancements of the electric fields,
especially with the resistivity contrast
that occurs between the land and sea at
the coast. However, calculations of the
electric fields in these cases require
two- or three-dimensional modeling
and are one of the many areas of ongoing research in GICs studies.
All of the aforementioned factors are
taken into account to determine the
size and occurrence rates of GICs
throughout a power system. This information then needs to be combined with
transformer models to determine the
harmonic generation and reactive
power demand. These, in turn, provide
the input to power flow models to

determine whether these will have any
IMf are provided by a satellite at the L1
impact on the system operation. The
point, about 30 min travel time upmodeling can also be used to examine
stream of Earth. The data are currently
the effect of any system changes conprovided by the ACE satellite; the DISsidered to mitigate the GICs effects.
COVR satellite was launched in februHowever, system changes may not
ary 2015 to provide ongoing measurealways be economical, and, therefore, a
ments of this critical parameter. On the
preferred option may be to use operatground, magnetic observatories show
ing strategies to keep the system funchow the storm evolves and provide
tioning during a magnetic storm. These
magnetic data that can be used to drive
operating strategies inevitably involve
real-time GICs simulations. This can
operating the system in less than optihelp system operators track the GICs in
mum conditions and involve some ecotheir systems and make operating decinomic costs. This then drives demands
sions to preserve the electricity supply
for improved forecasts of the geomagon which society depends.
netic disturbances and GICs so that the
biography
operating procedures are only impleDavid Boteler (David.Boteler@canada.
mented when necessary.
ca) is head of the space weather group
forecasting geomagnetic disturat the Geomagnetic Laboratory, Natubances involves going back to the
ral Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
source of the activity on the sun. Solar
observations show the sunspot regions
as they cross the face of the sun. As
these regions approach center disk, any
eruption is considered
as a possible driver for
a geomagnetic storm.
X-ray monitoring provides a measure of
any solar flares, and
coronagraphs provide
images of plasma
clouds erupting from
the sun's corona.
These are used to estimate the speed of any
CMEs and provide a
time of arrival for
Reach Key DecisionEarth. This provides
Makers in Transportation
a one- to three-day
Electrification and
warning of an imMicrogrid Technology
pending disturbance
but not much information about how
To Advertise, please contact:
large the disturbance
Erik Henson
will be. The size of a
Naylor Association Solutions
geomagnetic disturehenson@naylor.com
bance is strongly inTel: +1 352 333 3443
fluenced by the size
and direction of the
IEEE Electrification Magazine is sponsored by
interplanetary magnetic field (IMf) carried along by the CME.
Measurements of the

Advertise in
Electrification
Magazine

IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / d ec em be r 2 0 1 5

7



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015

IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2015 - 1
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