IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2017 - 35

+

Vdc2
- PI Voltage iq∗2
Controller 2
+
Flux
Weakening
Algorithm

ωe

+

+ +
iq∗1

∗
ids

-

∗
PI Current vqg
Controller 2

+
-

a
2/3PPωe|λd |
∗
Vdc1

∗
PI Current vdg
Controller 1

∗
iqs

Voltage
Comp.

+
+
+ +
+
+

∗
vds2
∗
vqs2

÷

∗
v1P

ids

|is |
vdc1

x
iqs/|is |

iqs

∗
vds1

x
ids/|is |

abc

SVM

a

θf

ωe

÷

∗
PI Voltage pdc1
- Controller 1

dq

dq
abc
dq
abc

∗
vqs1

ia, ib

OEW
IG

IRU 1

∗
Vdc2

IRU 2

Electric Actuation
dc Bus

Electric Actuation dc Bus Voltage Regulation

SVM

a

θf

To Main
dc Bus

Main dc Bus Voltage Regulation

Figure 11. The closed-loop control scheme for the induction machine-based APU architecture for electrical power generation and management in emergency power mode. OEW: open-end winding; Comp.: compensation.

(4)

where v 1p is the voltage magnitude command, which is used
as an intermediate control reference to decouple the power
output of IRU 1 from generator current magnitude variation.
PI voltage controller 2 is used to regulate the electric
actuation dc bus voltage. The generator q axis (torque)
current command i )qs is determined by the adding the q
axis (torque) current needed for the actuation dc bus i )q1
with the q axis (torque) current demanded by the main dc
bus i )q2 . Using rotor-flux orientation, two PI current controllers are used to regulate i ds and i qs.
)

Real-Time Emulation Results of ac/dc
Hybrid Power Generation Architecture

Simulation Results of the APU Architecture
To demonstrate the bidirectional, highly dynamic load
profile of the EHA/EMAs, the electric actuation dc bus is

To 660
...

To demonstrate the feasibility of operation of the induction
generator-based ac/dc hybrid generation system, a realtime emulation platform is built using a OPAL-RT hardware-in-the-loop testing system. The emulated generation
system is controlled by a Texas Instruments TMS320F28335
digital signal processor.
In the case study, an 85-kW, 11,060-r/min induction generator and a 60-kW, 3,150-r/min induction generator are used
on the HP and LP spool, respectively. At the beginning of the
emulation, the generators are controlled to supply 60-kW
three-phase 115-Vac balanced resistive load and 60-kW
540-Vdc load at their rated speed. Step changes are applied
to the ac load from 60 to 65 kW at 11.0 s, and to the dc load
from 60 to 50 kW at 11.15 s. From 10.9 to 11.2 s, the HP and LP
generator speed ramp to 110% and 120% of their rated speed,
respectively. The dc power output command of the HP spool
generation subsystem changes from 20 to 10 kW at 11.3 s.

Currently, airborne EPSs do not have an official voltage
regulation standard for a 540-Vdc bus. The closest available standard (MIL-STD-704F) is for a 270-Vdc bus, and it limits the voltage variation so as not to exceed +10/−20 V in a
steady state. Assuming the voltage variation limitation in
MIL-STD-704F is doubled for the 540-Vdc bus, the voltage
variation allowed for the dc voltage regulation for the system
would be +20/−40 V. The transient voltage limitation of the
system is assumed to be doubled for the same reason. The
dc bus voltage waveform is shown in Figure 12; the assumed
voltage limit of the 540-Vdc bus is illustrated as red lines.
The ac load voltage waveform of the system is shown in
Figure 13. The steady-state and transient voltage limit for a
VF 115-Vac distribution in MIL-STD-704F is shown as red
lines. The third phase ac voltage is absent because only two
voltage sensors are used to monitor the ac load voltage.

560

To 500

575
565
555
545
535
525
515

dc Bus Voltage (V)

i qs
,
is

...

v qs1 = v 1p)

10.8 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8
Time (s)
Figure 12. The dc bus voltage regulation characteristics of the ac/dc
hybrid generation system.

IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / D EC EM BE R 2 0 1 7

35



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