IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2017 - 37

Main dc Bus Input Power (W)

-6.4
-6.6
-6.8
-7.0
-7.2
-7.4

Electric Actuation dc Bus Input Power (W)

-7.6

4

1

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8
Time (s)
(a)
4
× 10

3

1

3

3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4

-3
APU Generator Output Power (W)

×

104

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8
Time (s)
(b)
× 104

For Further Reading

-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
-11

1

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8
Time (s)
(c)

In the induction generator-based ac/dc hybrid generation system, like an ac primary generation system, the
system can supply CVVF power directly from one side of
the generator winding terminals. On the other side of the
generator winding terminals, the more advanced paralleled dc bus power generation architecture from the dc
primary generation system is presented. Both ac and dc
output voltages of the system can be well regulated with
variations in generator speed, ac and dc side load, and dc
power output command. The overall requirement of the
hardware of the ac/dc hybrid generation system is
reduced compared to the dc primary generation system.
In the induction generator-based APU for the power generation and management system, the open-end winding
induction machine provides a direct power-flow path from
the EHA/EMAs to the power source but prevents the main
dc network from being affected by the perturbation and
disturbance caused by the actuators. A separate dc bus is
created for the EHA/EMAs without adding significant hardware. Both the main and electric actuation dc bus voltages
of the system can be well regulated simultaneously.
The application of an induction machine enables new
EPS architectures with fewer fundamental limitations
from inherent drawbacks of the WFSG and PM machines.
The new EPS architectures can enhance the electric
power generation capacity of the aircraft, reduce the
hardware, and manage the high peak and regenerative
power flow from the EHA/EMAs.

3

Figure 15. (a) The main dc bus input power, (b) the electric actuation
dc bus input power, and (c) the APU generator output power characteristics of the APU architecture for electrical power generation and
management.

B. Sarlioglu and C. T. Morris, "More electric aircraft: Review,
challenges, and opportunities for commercial transport aircraft," IEEE Trans. Transport. Electrific., vol. 1, pp. 54-64, June 2015.
B. S. Bhangu and K. Rajashekara, "Control strategy for electric starter generators embedded in gas turbine engine for
aerospace applications," in Proc. IEEE Energy Conversion Congr.
and Exposition: Energy Conversion Innovation for a Clean Energy
Future, 2011, pp. 1461-1467.
R. Bojoi, A. Cavagnino, A. Tenconi, and S. Vaschetto, "Control of shaft-line-embedded multiphase starter/generator for
aero-engine," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 63, pp. 641-652, Jan.
2016.
Y. Jia and K. Rajashekara, "An induction generator-based
ac/dc hybrid electric power generation system for more electric aircraft," IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 2485-
2494, May-June 2017.
K. Rajashekara and Y. Jia, "An induction generator-based
auxiliary power unit for power generation and management
system for more electric aircraft," in Proc. IEEE Energy Conversion Congr. and Exposition, Milwaukee, WI, 2016, pp. 1-7.
U.S. Department of Defense Interface Standard, Aircraft Electric
Power Characteristics, MIL-STD-704F, Mar. 2004.

Biographies
of power generation schemes for the main engine and for
the APU-based systems in an MEA are presented. An
induction generator with open-end winding topology is
used as the main starter/generator in both the mainengine generation architecture and the APU for the regenerative power management system.

Yijiang Jia ( yxj131230@utdallas.edu) is with ANSYS, Inc.,
Ann Arbor, Michigan, as a consulting engineer.
Kaushik Rajashekara (ksraja@uh.edu) is with the
department of electrical & computer engineering, University of Houston, Texas.

IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / D EC EM BE R 2 0 1 7

37



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