IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2017 - 5

with weight and other problems posed
by flying. Several programs in recent
years have demonstrated the baseline

1,000

Forecast

900

500
450

800

400

700

350

600

300

500

250

400

200

300

150

200

100

100

50

0

Battery Energy Density (Wh/L)

However, the insights drawn from
ground vehicles only work up to a
point, given that aircraft must contend

Battery Cost (US$/kWh)

22

20

20

20

16

15

20

14

20

13

20

12

20

11

20

10

20

20

09

0

20

On the ground, strong series hybrids
and all-electric vehicles have had a
disruptive impact over short ranges
across automobiles, transit buses,
and delivery trucks. The impact is
more modest over longer ranges via
the mild hybrid platforms found in
some heavy-duty trucks. As a result,
shorter-range vehicles are quickly
becoming electrified, whereas adoption over longer ranges has been slow.
This rapid electrification of shorterrange vehicles, however, is spurring
the development of technologies
beginning to appear on long-range
platforms. Aviation splits along similar lines. Short-haul routes can be
more feasibly addressed in the near
term by strong series hybrid to allelectric technologies derived from
ground vehicles, whereas long-haul
routes will strain technology and economics well into the 2030s (Figure 2).

Figure 1. The battery cost and energy density forecast [International Energy Agency, Global EV
Outlook 2017 (OECD/IEA, 2017), p. 14].

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2017

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