IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2017 - 52

The CCPS is based
on an ARM-based
microprocessor to
run algorithms and
an FPGA to handle
mathematic
computations to
increase the
system's capability
for real-time
simulations.

modules (ALM) are important
parameters to be considered when
comparing different devices. Among
the devices listed in Table 3, the
Xilinx Artix-7 7A35T offers the highest-frequency global clock tree, the
largest number of embedded math
blocks, and the lowest cost per unit.
The Microsemi IGLOO2 M2GL050,
however, has the highest LE/LC/ALM
count, the second largest internal
memory, and the most phase-locked
loops and clock conditioning circuits.
In terms of SEU protection and mitigation, the best choice is the IGLOO2
because its configuration memory
is immune to SEU, which, in turn,
affects the LE/LC/ALM count, and so
the device needs less resource-costly
mitigation. In addition, Microsemi
FPGAs are already well established for avionics, which may
cut down on certification and verification costs.
Among the various devices listed in Table 3, the
M2GL050 (Microsemi IGLOO2) is the preferred choice due

Digital Core
(Microprocessor)

FPGA

and command execution for aircraft equipment. Existing analog
controllers provide high-performance functionality, and they are
robust and have high reliability;
however, they are limited in accuracy when complex control strategies are required. Therefore,
digital-signal processing approaches that result in high accuracy and
the ability to support enhanced
features are attracting a great deal
of attention. Digital control systems offer faster response times,
reduced weight and size, and lower
costs, which is why the aerospace
industry is making efforts to move
toward such solutions. The CCPS
discussed in this article provides a
highly capable and fast data-management system that is desirable for harsh aerospace
applications. The CCPS is based on an ARM-based microprocessor to run algorithms and an FPGA to handle mathematic computations to increase the system's capability
for real-time simulations.
Figure 4 illustrates a laboratory prototype of the CCPS
using the IGLOO2 FPGA and ARM Cortex-A7 microprocessor together with their evaluation boards and other
modules. The CCPS brings a simple solution to time-consuming, limited-performance, and expensive analog systems; incorporates a large number of features in a
smaller footprint; and demonstrates higher efficiency
and faster response. Because obsolescence is one of the
major problems in aerospace, this solution identifies
components with a life cycle compatible with the aerospace industry's "in-market product cycle" of approximately 20 years.

Figure 4. The hardware implementation of the CCPS.

For Further Reading
to the number of required LCs, the maximum frequency,
and SEU protection, which is critical for the proposed
CCPS controller.
The Xilinx Artix-7 math blocks have a slightly larger
multiplier than their Microsemi counterpart. Xilinx does
not create any flash-based FPGAs, and, thus, they cannot
create any SEU-immune FPGAs. The Microsemi devices
have better operating temperature ranges than their
Xilinx counterparts. In fact, the middle temperature range
of the Microsemi devices is the same as the widest temperature range offered by Xilinx.

E. Monmasson, L. Idkhajine, and M. W. Naouar, "FPGA-based
controllers," IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 14-26,
Mar. 2011.
J. A. Rosero, J. A. Ortega, E. Aldabas, and L. Romeral, "Moving towards a more electric aircraft," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst.
Mag., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 3-9, Mar. 2007.
B. Sarlioglu and C. T. Morris, "More electric aircraft: Review,
challenges, and opportunities for commercial transport aircraft," IEEE Trans. Transport. Electrific., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 54-64,
June 2015.

Biographies
Omid Beik (omid.beik@ieee.org) is with Magna Powertrain,

Discussion
The main functionality of aircraft controllers includes
I/O-parameter acquisition and control, analysis of different input signals such as temperature and pressure,

52

I E E E E l e c t r i f i c ati o n M a gaz ine / DECEMBER 2017

Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Ali Emadi (emadi@mcmaster.ca) is with McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.



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