IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2017 - 77

80

70

70

60

60

50

50

Voltage (V)

Voltage (V)

80

40
30

40
30

20

20

10

10

0

0

-10

0

10

20

30
Time (s)
(a)

40

50

-10

60

0

2

0

50

4

6

8 10 12
Time (s)
(b)

14

16 18

20

90
90

85
80
75
Voltage (V)

Voltage (V)

80
70
60

70
65
60
55
50

50

45
40

40
0

50

100 150

200 250
Time (s)
(c)

300

350

400

35

100 150

200 250
Time (s)
(d)

300

350

400

Figure 8. Some choices of parameters for the state-of-charge control loop: (a) gain = 5, Vref = 60; (b) gain = 1.5, Vref = 60; (c) gain = 5,
Vref = 72; (d) gain = 1.5, Vref = 72.

the size of the stored energy system. Subsequently, the
system sizing algorithm chooses these values.
In the prior discussed example (see Table 1), resizing
the stored energy and its control loop using an iterative
process from the optimization algorithm gives rise to the
results in Table 2. Taking into account the stored energy
losses and adding a loop to maintain the state of charge
leads to a stored energy resizing that is around 23% higher than for the system when considered with no losses. It
is also used to determine the criteria (reference voltage,
proportional gain, and initial minimum voltage of the
stored energy) enabling the mission to be performed,
complying with the limitations set for the state of charge
of the stored energy and ensuring its optimal operation
(seeĀ in Figure 9).

Final Simulation Results
Two versions of the PEM fuel cell were studied by GarciaArregui: an H2/O2 stack and an H2/air stack. The weight

TABLE 2. The results of iterative resizing with

compensation for losses.

Vref (V)

Gain

C (F)

V0 (V)

68

3

12.1

47.5

savings that can be achieved with an H2/O2 stack (higher
specific power and no compressor) is consequently canceled out due to the weight of the O2 to be carried (mainly
the weight of the tanks). For the weight minimization criteria, the solution from the theoretical studies is therefore
the H2/air solution. During the simulations, we considered
a rather pessimistic scenario in which we took into
account auxiliary consumption (mainly compressor consumption) equal to 20% of the fuel cell production as well
as the losses in the converters (losses in switches, inductors, and capacitors). The simulation result for this system
sizing is given in Figure 10.
IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / D EC EM BE R 2 0 1 7

77



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