IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2017 - 79

Load

Iload

Vbus
Fuel Cell

HP Filter
C (s)

C (s)

+ Iref
-

C (s)

-

Iref

+
-

Imes

Vmes
+ Vref

Current Piloted

Imes
Voltage Piloted
Storage
(a)
Iload

Load

Vbus
Fuel Cell
LP Filter
C (s)

Iref
+

Imes
-

+ Iref

C (s)

C (s)

-
Imes

Current Piloted

Vmes
-

Vref
+

Voltage Piloted

Storage
(b)
Figure 11. The DoF offered by the chosen architecture: (a) the bus managed by the fuel cell (strategy one); (b) the bus managed by the stored energy
(strategy two). HP: high pass; LP: low pass.

partial supply of the high-frequency part of the load current, and this noncompensated part will therefore be
found in the fuel cell current. Given the nature of the
stored energy converter [dc-dc, bidirectional in current,
working as a booster in the stored energy to bus direction
(Rafal 2010)], it enables the current in the stored energy or
the bus voltage to be controlled. In this case, we would like
to control the converter output current, i.e., on the bus side,
as the converter's instruction is to supply the high frequencies of the load current so that the fuel cell does not have to
supply this part. As this current management method is
not permitted because of the nature of the converter and
we were not able to control this in our experimental system, a way of managing the current on the bus side would
be to apply the voltage ratio to the reference current of the
stored energy. This transposition requires a yield per unit
from the converter. In practice, with no specific action, the
final current at the bus will be lower than the current
required. To be able to control the bus current via this converter, the chosen method is to add a converter loss compensation loop. The current was therefore managed as

I HVdc
Converter ,

I stor .Vstor + PL + Diodes + IGBT
,
VHVdc

(2)

where I HVdc
Converter is the output current of the converter and
I stor is the input current to be managed. The equation
includes converter losses. However, it is difficult to
ascertain them in real time. We chose to compensate
for them via a theoretical estimation. This is because
the converter losses are mainly composed of losses in
the switches (3) and (4)-here, the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and diode-in addition to losses in
the passive elements (5):
PIGBT (V, I) = Pcond + Pcomm
= (VCE $ Ir r + R r $ I 2eff + (E ON (V, I) + E OFF (V, I)) $ fdec) (3)
IGBT

o

IGBT

r

PDiode (V, I) = Pcond + Pcomm
= (VD $ Ir d + R d $ I 2eff ) + (E REC (V, I) $ fdec)
Diode

o

PL (I) = R L $ I 2L .

Diode

d

(4)
(5)

Therefore, in requiring the stored energy to supply
the high-frequency parts of the load power and the losses
IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / D EC EM BE R 2 0 1 7

79



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - December 2017

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