IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - 19

dc-power standard for home wiring today, even though
the telecom and automobile industries use 48-V dc widely.
The IEEE Low-Voltage dc Forum in India proposed 48-V dc
power as a standard for home power involving low-power
appliances. The Bureau of Indian Standards is now working on such standards and is veering toward the 48-V dc
standard for homes with low-power appliances and
380-V dc for larger microgrids involving higher power
usages. The International Electrotechnical Commission
has set up a subgroup to examine dc-power standards for
homes and other usages. But for now, there is no acceptable standard that can be used by appliance manufacturers and installers. This could be the primary reason for the
third bottleneck-the lack of availability of standardized
dc-powered dc appliances. Unless such appliances are
widely available at prices comparable to their ac counterparts, users are unlikely to bite. This is so even when dcpowered appliances have the benefit of avoiding ac-dc
converters and, thereby, reducing costs and increasing
reliability. Even the power-factor correction that ac-powered appliances need will no longer be required. Despite
these hurdles, countries, such as India, can benefit
immensely by adopting the dc microgrid for homes and
powering them using rooftop solar panels. Difficulties
cannot stop the future, and solar-dc microgrids for homes
is the future. India needs to lead rather than wait for the
difficulties to be resolved.

For Further Reading
International Energy Agency, "World Energy Outlook 2015,"
Int. Energy Agency, Paris, France, annual report, 2015.
A. Jain, S. Ray, K. Ganesan, M. Aklin, C.- Y. Cheng, and J.
Urpelainen, "Access to clean cooking energy and electricity:
Survey of states," Council on Energy, Environment, and Water,
New Delhi, India, 2015.
T. Buckley, "Briefing note: India power prices," Inst. for
Energy Econ. and Financial Anal., Cleveland, OH, 2014.
P. Kaur, S. Jain, and A. Jhunjhunwala, "Solar-DC deployment
experience in off-grid and near off-grid homes: Economics,
technology and policy analysis," in Proc. IEEE First Int. Conf. DC
Microgrids (ICDCM), Atlanta, GA, 2015, pp. 26-31.
Global Buildings Performance Network, "Residential buildings in India: Energy use projections and savings potentials,"
Global Buildings Performance Network, Ahmedabad, India,
2014.
Center for Decentralized Power Systems, "Technological
comparative study of solar lighting systems for homes," Indian Inst. Technology, Chennai, India, 2015.

Biographies
Ashok Jhunjhunwala (ashok@tenet.res.in) received his
B.Tech. degree from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
Kanpur, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University
of Maine. From 1979 to 1981, he was with Washington
State University and has been at IIT Madras ever since,
where he leads the Telecommunications and Computer

Networks group. He is the director of the Board of Tata
Teleservices (Maharashtra) Limited, Polaris, Sasken, Tejas,
Tata Communications, Exicom, Mahindra Reva Electrical
Vehicles Private Limited, and Intellect Design Arena Limited. He was also a member of the Prime Minister's Scientific
Advisory Committee from 2004 to 2014. He was bestowed
with the Padma Shri in 2002, the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar
Award in 1998, the Millennium Medal at the Indian Science
Congress in 2000, and the H.K. Firodia for "Excellence in
Science and Technology" in 2002, among several others. He
is chair or member of several committees, including the
Technology Information, Forecasting, and Assessment
Council's vision 2035 for Electronics and Information Technology; Information Technology Institute for the Tribes of
India; Mobile Payment Forum of India; Technology Advisory Committee of the Securities and Exchange Board of
India; Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council;
and the IIT committee for solar energy installation among
many others. He is a Fellow of the IEEE, the World Wireless
Research forum, and several Indian academies.
Aditya Lolla (aditya@tenet.res.in) received his B.Tech.
degree in chemical engineering from Osmania University,
Hyderabad, India, in 2012 and his M.Sc. degree in sustainable energy systems from The University of Edinburgh,
United Kingdom, in 2013. He is a project officer at the
Center for Decentralized Power Systems, Indian Institute
of Technology, Madras, and is a recipient of the Queen's
Jubilee Scholarship from the British government. In his
previous roles, he worked on different projects encompassing renewable energy, sustainable development, and
energy policy. He researched microbial fuel cell technology with a specific focus on analytics and has worked as a
research intern at FloWave TT, Edinburgh, specializing in
tidal energy systems. His current work includes energy
policy, data analytics, and decentralized solar power.
Prabhjot Kaur (prabhjot@tenet.res.in) received her
B.Tech. degree from Punjab Technical University in 2001
and her M.S. degree in engineering from Punjab University. She completed her Ph.D. degree at the National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, in 2013. She is currently
working as principle scientist in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
Madras, and she also serves as deputy director at Telecom Centre of Excellence, IIT Madras. Prior to this, she
worked as associate professor at NorthCap University
(NCU), Gurgaon, India, where she also served as deputy
dean (research, development, and industrial liasoning).
At NCU, she formed and led the research group on wireless communication and was also a lead for Change Initiatives for Education Reforms and practices in the
university. She has been conducting faculty development
programs and also delivered some invited talks on varying fields of interest. Her recent research revolves around
green technologies encompassing renewables, batteries,
and electric vehicles.

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