IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - 28

lines is put to ground. In addition, it is required that the
voltage balancer provide galvanic isolation, because the
neutral conductor in a different area may have a different voltage level.

Conclusions
From where we stand today, it appears that a much
wider scale adoption of LVdc grids as enablers for lower
cost and more efficient integration of RESs and ESSs at
the building and residential level is just on the horizon.
The challenges lie mainly with effective and safe distribution protection and industry-accepted standards.
However, the opportunities for further resilience at the
customer end, because of increased decentralization of
energy sources and significant increases in efficient
energy usage, are compelling and will continue to motivate growth in this area.

For Further Reading
P. Fairley, "DC Versus AC: The second war of currents has
already begun," IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 104-
103, Nov. 2012.
E. Rodriguez-Diaz, J. C. Vasquez, and J. M. Guerrero, "Intelligent dc homes in future sustainable energy systems: When
efficiency and intelligence work together," IEEE Consum. Electron. Mag., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 74-80, Jan. 2016.
H. Kakigano, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, "Low-voltage bipolar-type
DC microgrid for super high quality distribution," IEEE Trans.
Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 3066-3075, 2010.
T. Kaipia, P. Nuutinen, A. Pinomaa, A. Lana, J. Partanen, J.
Lohjala, and M. Matikainen, "Field test environment for LVdc
distribution: Implementation experiences," poster presented
at the CIRED Workshop: Integration of Renewables into the
Distribution Grid, Lisbon, no. 0324, May 29-30, 2012.
B. T. Patterson, "DC, come home: DC microgrids and the
birth of the 'Enernet,'" IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 10, no. 6,
pp. 60-69, Nov. 2012.
R. Adapa, "High-wire act: HVdc technology: The state of the
art," IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 18-29, Nov. 2012.

Biographies
Enrique Rodriguez-Diaz (erd@et.aau.dk) earned his B.S.
degree in electronics engineering and his M.S. degree in
sustainable transportation and electrical power systems
from the University of Oviedo, Spain, in 2012 and 2014,
respectively. He is currently working toward his Ph.D.
degree in energy technology at Aalborg University, Denmark. He is a member of the International Electrotechnical Commission System Evaluation Group SEG4 on
Low-Voltage dc Applications, Distribution, and Safety for
use in Developed and Developing Economies. His
research interests are low-voltage distribution systems,
control of power converter units, energy-management
systems, and microgrids.
Fang Chen (fangchen@vt.edu) received his B.S. and
M.S. degrees from Zhejiang University, China, in 2009
and 2012, respectively. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D.
degree at the Center for Power Electronics Systems at

28

I E E E E l e c t r i f i c ati o n M agaz ine / j un e 2016

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg. From 2015 to 2016, he was a
guest Ph.D. student at the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark. His research interests include operation and control of dc power
distribution systems, net-zero-energy building, and
design of ac/dc converters for utility applications.
Juan C. Vasquez (juq@et.aau.dk) earned his B.S. degree
in electronics engineering from the Autonomous University of Manizales, Colombia, in 2004. In 2009, he received his
Ph.D. degree in automatic control, robotics, and computer
vision from the Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain. In 2011, he joined the Department of Energy
Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark, where he works
as an associate professor and is coleader of the Microgrid
Research Program.
Josep M. Guerrero (joz@et.aau.dk) earned his B.S.
degree in telecommunications engineering, his M.S.
degree in electronics engineering, and his Ph.D. degree in
power electronics from the Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, in 1997, 2000, and 2003, respectively. Since
2011, he has been a full professor with the Department of
Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark, where
he is responsible for the Microgrid Research Program. In
2014 and 2015, he was recognized by Thomson Reuters as
a highly cited researcher, and, in 2015, he was elevated as
an IEEE Fellow for his contributions in distributed power
systems and microgrids.
Rolando Burgos (rolando@vt.edu) received his B.S.
degree in electronics engineering, his Electronics Engineering Professional degree, and his M.S. and Ph.D.
degrees in electrical engineering from the University of
Concepcion, Chile, in 1995, 1997, 1999, and 2002, respectively. In 2012, he joined Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University (Virginia Tech), where he is currently
an associate professor in the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Power
Electronics Systems faculty. His current research interests include multiphase, multilevel power conversion,
grid power electronics systems, stability of ac and dc
power systems, high-power-density power electronics,
modeling, and control theory and applications.
Dushan Boroyevich (dushan@vt.edu) received his Dipl.
Ing. degree from the University of Belgrade, Serbia, in 1976;
his M.S. degree from the University of Novi Sad, Serbia, in
1982; and his Ph.D. degree from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, in
1986. He is currently the American Electric Power Professor
in the department and the codirector of the Center for
Power Electronics Systems. He is a recipient of the IEEE
William E. Newell Power Electronics Technical Field Award
and is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering. He was the president of the IEEE Power Electronics Society from 2011 to 2012.



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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2019
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