IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - 42

dc Sources

dc Loads

dc Loads
24 Vdc/48 Vdc/Other

DS

DS

Battery

760 Vdc 380 Vdc
380 Vdc

ARDA dc/dc
Energy
Converters
DS

dc Loads
380 Vdc/760 Vdc

ARDA dc/dc
Battery Converters
DM

DS
Energy
Converter

DS

DS

Grid-Tie
Inverter

Inverter
Uninterruptible
ac Loads

ac Source
ac Sources

ac Grid

Legend: DM -ARDA Distributed Master Controller

Interruptible
ac Loads

Uninterruptible
ac Loads
ac Loads

DS -ARDA Distributed Slave Controller

Figure 5. The ARDA dc microgrid concept.

Vdc sp

+

(From Sustaining
Function Algorithm)

-

dc Bus Volt
Controller

ESS Power
Command +
-

ESS Power
Controller

PESS

Converter
Plant (S)

dc Bus
Plant (S)

IESS

VESS

dc Bus Voltage

Figure 6. A block diagram for regulating function in energy storage.

in the system so that the components are not pushed to
extreme operating conditions where they cannot
respond to changes in demand or generation. Examples
of sustaining functions include battery- and energymanagement algorithms. The power sources and loads
use the average measured dc bus voltage to gain information about what the energy manager is commanding

42

I E E E E l e c t r i f i c ati o n M agaz ine / j un e 2016

and respond following internal algorithms to change
their power generated or consumed appropriately. Since
all the components are connected to the dc bus and the
operation of the microgrid depends on it, the dc-busbased communication has a high reliability and a low
cost. It makes sense to locate sustaining functions in
the energy-storage devices since they have all the



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016

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