IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - 5

voltages begin to drop. The challenge for traditional power engineers becomes one of confidence
in controls and the ability to regulate the bus voltage without having
frequency as a control that they
can use. The combination of new
smart grid controls and some of
the learned practices in the automotive industry may be able to
solve these challenges.
Each of these EVs has tens of kilowatt hours of energy stored in its battery packs, and, when fitted with
bidirectional power converters that
have the ability to communicate with
the grid, each will eventually serve as
a load, power source, or distributed
energy storage that can support the
grid; contribute to load peak shaving
and reactive power compensation;
and improve system efficiency, stability, and power delivery reliability
and security. Large public or private

parking areas are particularly suited
for the application of dc distribution
systems, where many privately
owned or fleet vehicles can be individually charged or discharged
according to the cost of electricity,
battery state of charge, and vehicleowner preferences. When parked,
electric school buses and university
on-campus service EVs with enabled
vehicle-to-grid technology will
also help with peak-load shaving
and electricity cost reduction for
the institutions.

Developing World
According to the World Bank, approximately 1.1 billion individuals worldwide do not have access to electricity;
many are in areas that the grid simply cannot reach. A common practice
(often for a fee) is to charge a 12-Vdc
battery with jumper cables connected
to the output of an alternator, install

the charged battery in a home, and
feed 12-Vdc loads until the battery is
discharged. In these areas, a dc grid is
an obvious choice. Often, simple disjointed systems of solar panels, batteries (e.g., car batteries), and efficient
dc loads (e.g., light-emitting diode
light bulbs, well pumps, and motors)
quickly scale. Such systems safely
power entire villages without the
need for sophisticated controls, technical experts, or formal training.
Rural villagers find many ways to
power cell phones, televisions, and
lights with safe low-voltage (<50 V)
dc systems. This dc power system
solution is fossil fuel based (gasoline), dangerous (mechanically hazardous), expensive (~300 depth of
discharge cycles/lead acid battery),
and toxic (acid/gas/fire exposure).
However, this disjointed approach
works and is thus commonplace
throughout the developing world.

IEEE Elec trific ation Magazine / j une 2 0 1 6

5



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016

IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - Cover1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - Cover2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - 1
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IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - Cover3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - Cover4
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