IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - 54

Communication

Central
Controller

Controller 1 Controller 2

...

Controller n

Generator 1 Generator 2

...

Generator n

G

G

G

+
-

Physical Interconnection
(a)
Controller 1 Controller 2

...

Controller n

Generator 1 Generator 2

...

Generator n

G

G

G

+
-

Physical Interconnection
(b)
Communication

Smart Grid Technologies, the Key to
the Smart Onboard Power System

Controller 1 Controller 2

...

Controller n

Generator 1 Generator 2

...

Generator n

G

G

G

+
-

result in inherent performance limitation, especially when
performing optimization. In addition, the major methods of
decentralized coordination are based on the response to
specific global variables; the accuracy of measurement thus
impacts the effectiveness of the entire system.
Therefore, instead of centralized coordination control
or decentralized coordination control, distributed coordination control can be seen as a good compromise
between both approaches, where a central controller
does not exist but where local controllers are able to
communicate with each other. The most important distributed coordination method is the multiagent system
(MAS), in which each local controller could be regarded
as an intelligent agent, with all agents together composing the MAS. By applying a consensus algorithm, it could
achieve information awareness comparable to that of
centralized control and offer the possibility of applying
wider functionalities than decentralized control. Meanwhile, it maintains a reliability comparable to decentralized control. The MAS is also considered to be an
effective way to achieve global optimization objectives
(e.g., overall efficiency improvement). However, it
requires a complex interaction network among the local
controllers, and its main limitation is the complexity of
the analytical performance analysis, especially in nonideal environments (e.g., communication time delays and
measurement errors).

Physical Interconnection
(c)

The common trend of power systems is moving toward
higher intelligence and efficiency. As one of the major
objectives of the future smart grid, the concepts of intelligent management (e.g., supervisory energy management)
and smart protection (e.g., adaptive reconfiguration) have
been introduced to the microgrid as an extension of the
conventional hierarchical control architecture. These concepts can also be introduced to the IPS to achieve an efficient and reliable shipboard power system for the future
smart AES, and therefore contribute to the further
improvement of fuel efficiency, limitation of greenhouse
gas emissions, and fault-tolerant character of the shipboard power system.

Figure 9. The operating principles of different coordination methods.

exemption from single-point failure. In recent studies,
decentralized coordination can be achieved in several ways,
such as by the dc bus signal (DBS) and power line signal
(PLS) methods. These methods exploit the information-carrying potential of global variables (i.e., dc bus voltage) to
achieve coordinated operation. Meanwhile, master/slave
control and multimode control strategies are commonly
used to coordinate the energy sources to achieve comparable performance. However, decentralized coordination
methods have their own drawbacks, the most important
being the lack of global information awareness, which will

54

I E E E E l e c t r i f i c ati o n M agaz ine / j un e 2016

Smart Coordinated Management for
Lower Cost and Reduced Emissions
Under normal conditions, the voyage or mission of a vessel can be divided into several operating scenarios, such as
docking, acceleration, deceleration, and cruise. These scenarios will not transfer in random order-for example, the
vessel will not dock directly after acceleration. Based on
this important fact, preplanned onboard energy management and its optimization would be applicable to coordinate the onboard generation and ESSs for optimal fuel
efficiency. In recent years, the International Maritime
Organization has promoted the Ship Energy Efficiency



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016

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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2014
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