IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016 - 56

Zone 1 Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 1 Zone 2

Zone 4

G
Zone 3 Zone 4
G

M

G

G

M

G

Fault 1

M

G

G

Fault 3

M

G

Fault 3

Fault 2

Fault 2
(a)

(b)

Zone 1 Zone 2

Zone 1 Zone 2

Zone 3 Zone 4

G

M

G

G

M

G

Fault 3

Zone 4
G

M

G

G

M

G

(c)

Zone 3

(d)

Figure 11. The process of sectionalization and reconfiguration based on the self-healing method: (a) faults occur, (b) fault 1 clear, (c) fault 2
clear, and (d) fault 3 clear.

The reconfiguration
capability is one of
the most promising
advantages of the
MVdc IPS for the
future AES,
especially for naval
applications.

constraints. Also, considering dc
ZEDS, since zones are normally interconnected, there may be scenarios
where a single failure might spread
and cause a regional failure or systemic crash if the protective architecture is not designed to address the
potential for such scenarios. Hence,
effective fault protection and faultpoint isolation are considered as the
major challenges for ensuring the
safety of the MVdc IPS.
A considerable research and development effort has been made to
enable the protective function by
using power electronic converters. However, there are still
several challenging points, such as communication delays
and measurement failures. In recent studies, measurement failures can be overcome by using outliner data
detection and reconstruction algorithms. Expert system
concepts have also been introduced into dc microgrids to
achieve prognosis of fault sections and to guide effective
protective activities when faults occur.
The reconfiguration capability is one of the most promising advantages of the MVdc IPS for the future AES, especially for naval applications. However, the nonlinear
multiconnectivity and high-dimensionality of the onboard
power system make it difficult to achieve fast and efficient
reconfiguration. Returning to the dc ZEDS discussion

56

I E E E E l e c t r i f i c ati o n M agaz ine / j un e 2016

related to Figure 4, several advanced
concepts have been introduced to
address the protection dilemma. An
essential approach is the self-healing
reconstruction method, which first
subdivides the power system into several zonal microgrids and then reconstructs from microgrids when a fault
is cleared. The sectionalizing aims at
the minimization of the isolated area
while at the same time maintaining
the power supply to healthy zones.
Further, the sectionalized zonal
microgrids will attempt to connect
with each other and form networked
microgrids, which can improve the operation and reliability. In this way, the power system will recover from the
fault in several steps and isolate the fault location at the
same time. Figure 11 shows the process of sectionalization and reconfiguration based self-healing when three
faults occur in different positions.

Conclusion
In this article, we examined dc microgrid-based maritime
onboard power systems and outlined the need for and
potential benefit of employing both smart grid technologies and the MVdc IPS for the future AES to enhance the
controllability and efficiency of shipboard power systems.
We introduced a series of technical outcomes from



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - June 2016

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