IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - 25

There is a great
deal of scope to
optimize household
electricity usage
and generation
via the combination
of PVs, storage,
demand management,
and grid supply.

AUD/kWh

overcast but the load high, then the
Potential Impact of Electric
Vehicles as Mobile Storage
battery should be almost fully charged
One possible disruptor to the current
during the off-peak period. Conversely,
scenario is the future proliferation of
if the PV output is expected to be high
electric vehicles (EVs). The latest genbut with a modest load, then the bateration of EVs, such as the Tesla Model S,
tery can start the day with a very low
has ranges in excess of 500 km per
state of charge since the morning PV
charge, with subsequent models likely
can be used to charge the BESS in prepto push that figure out even further.
aration for the late-afternoon peak
Thinking about this in purely electriperiod. This necessitates accurate load
cal terms, the storage capacity of
and PV forecasting and an optimization
next-generation EVs is actually many
routine to provide the optimum morntimes that of typical household BESSs
ing battery SoC.
commonly available.
There has been much discussion
As mentioned previously, the
and speculation on the feasibility of
average Australian household conwidespread household grid indepensumption is typically 19 kWh/day,
dence through a combination of PV
which would require about 50 kWh of storage suppleand storage. While this is technically feasible, our analysis
menting 10 kW of PVs to provide grid-level reliability. The
indicates that, for many Australian households, it would
be a very expensive exercise to
achieve both grid independence and
grid-equivalent levels of reliability
1.4
(see Khalilpour and Vassallo, 2015).
This results from the need to pro1.2
vide sufficient storage to meet those
periods where high load with low
1
PV generation coincide.
Exported Energy
To approach 97% reliability (i.e., to
(AUD0.06)
0.8
not meet the load for 260 h per year),
Typical
as much as 50 kWh of storage comConsumption
Off Peak
0.6
bined with 10 kW of PV is required.
AUD0.132
Given that most available systems
0.4
Typical
3.3-kW PV
have a capacity of between 5 and
Generation
0.2
15 kWh, anywhere from three to ten
Shoulder
Off Peak
Shoulder
Peak
systems with typical characteristics
AUD0.135
AUD0.218
AUD0.525 AUD0.218
0
would need to be installed in every
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
household that wanted to achieve
Hour of Day
grid independence.
Of course, many homes will not
Figure 3. The typical household consumption and PV generation profile in Australia.
require this much storage or as much
PV generation, but this example
demonstrates the challenge of providing grid-level reliability solely with local generation and storage. Our analysis
also shows that by keeping the grid connection, extra value
can be captured through PV export, especially as PV sysPw
Ps
tems become less expensive and more capacity is installed.
Aside from the benefits that storage can provide to the
homeowner, there is also an opportunity for distribution
Optimization and Control
network service providers to call on distributed storage in
Forecasting
their networks to manage peaks, voltage issues, and load
System
growth. This would require an agreement between the
homeowner and the utility or operation through an interBESS
mediary third party that would provide an aggregation of
home energy storage system power to the utility (the New
Zealand network operator Vector has already established a
Figure 4. An optimization and control schematic for renewable
energy systems.
model based on these principles).
IEEE Electrific ation Magazine / S EP T EM BE R 2 0 1 5

25



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015

IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - 1
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IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - Cover4
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