IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - 28

Figure 8. Solar and wind generation on King Island, Tasmania.
(Photo courtesy of P. Maker.)

period. Flow batteries such as vanadium redox batteries
(VRBs) have much lower power densities than Li-ion batteries but are more tolerant of heat as well as being able to
completely charge/discharge without reducing the life of
the battery (Figure 7).
Research and development efforts will address some of
the shortcomings of individual technologies at the materials
and design level, maximizing performance and reducing
production costs for individual types of storage technologies.
However, in our view, the key is to maximize the efficiency of
the wider system by utilizing the complementary strengths
and weaknesses of various storage technologies and by
matching asset characteristics to load profiles.
Furthermore, if smaller storage assets are to be deployed
throughout the network, much thought must be given to
planning the location of each asset, and complementary
technologies should be colocated to function independently
in a hybrid system, which can respond more effectively to
variable demand conditions.

High Renewable Penetration and Storage in
Remote Minigrid Applications

Figure 9. The PowerStore flywheel at Coral Bay, Western Australia.
(Photo courtesy of P. Maker.)

Total renewable energy penetration is still at relatively low
levels in Australia, particularly along the urbanized eastcoast population center. While South Australia has experienced peak renewable penetration of more than 25%, some
microgrids in rural and remote areas are experiencing average renewable energy (mostly PV and wind) penetration of

51
GenPact
WtgPact
Ps1Pact

400
Low Penetration
Generators and Wind Turbines Sharing

50.5

200

50

Wind Turbine Power kW

Hz

kW

Generator kW

High Penetration
Generators at Ideal Loading
49.5

0

Powerstore kW

49
01:21:40
13 May 2009

01:30:00
13 May 2009

01:38:20
13 May 2009

Coral Bay, 17:08:46, 18 May 2009, Local Host
Figure 10. Coral Bay performance: 93% renewable penetration with stabilization.

28

I E E E E l e c t r i f i cati o n M agaz ine / SEPTEMBER 2015

01:46:40
13 May 2009



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015

IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - 1
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IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Electrification Magazine - September 2015 - Cover4
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2017
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2017
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2016
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_march2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_june2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_september2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/electrification_december2013
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