IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 32

In addition to defining attributes, the TE framework
also defines six principles embodying general requirements
that a TE system should exhibit.

preliminary test cases. In support of that activity, the GWAC
convened two workshops. The first of these, held in July 2015,
brought together about 20 experts in various fields related to
the valuation of DERs to compare approaches and discuss
how to value TE systems as a means to integrate the DERs.
Based on the results of the first workshop, PNNL developed an approach to the valuation methodology. The resulting structured, systematic approach was reviewed with an
expanded group of stakeholders and the full GWAC during a
second workshop held in September 2015. The PNNL work
on valuation will provide an extension to the TE framework
document and support the application of the TE decision
maker's checklist.
TE in the Context of Planning and Operations

Traditional utility planning involves putting a lot of steel in the
ground and planning for peak conditions. With the challenges
already discussed relating to the changing use of power, the
emergence of new technologies and communications, and
the penetration of renewable generation and storage into the
system, the industry has a simple choice to make. It can con-

Related Work
GWAC Stack

figure 4. The GWAC stack.

The context-setting interoperability framework is a document published by the GWAC in March 2008 that introduced
a simple layered approach to
communicate and organize ideas
about distributed system integraTransactive Energy
tion that could be used by decision makers, architects, designers,
Policy and Market
and solution providers within the
Designs
electric system community. This
framework proposed two main
dimensions to provide context
Business Models and
to interoperability discussions.
Value Realization
The first was a categorization of
interoperability into layers much
like the OSI 7 layer communication model. This had eight layers
Conceptual
classified by three major catArchitecture
egories: technical, informational,
and organizational. The second
dimension presented issue areas
for interoperability that can cut
across multiple category layers.
Cyber-Physical
Note that the eight layers
Architecture
proposed in this document (also
referred to as the "GWAC stack")
were classified into four categories when GWAC was developing

ieee power & energy magazine

may/june 2016

Interoperability Categories
8) Economic/Regulatory Policy
Organizational
(Pragmatics)

7) Business Objectives

6) Business Procedures

5) Business Context
Informational
(Semantics)

4) Semantic Understanding

3) Syntactic Interoperability

Technical
(Syntax)

2) Network Interoperability

1) Basic Connectivity

32

tinue to plan for peak load, modeling the predicted behavior
and then building the infrastructure with the assumption that
it will perform as modeled, or it can include concepts in the
planning process so as to build more flexible infrastructure.
This has the advantage of perhaps reducing the initial
build cost but will depend on leveraging TE capabilities that,
in all likelihood, will not be known at the time of design. This
type of uncertainty is not a good cultural fit with designing
a system that is durable, resilient, and safe. But the industry
faces a choice. It can follow a path of increasing intelligence
and intermittency in which those devices act independently,
or it can choose to take a coordinating role using a platform to
leverage these assets as intelligent agents. The latter approach
creates a more flexible system that can not only reduce peak
loads but provide increased resilience as well.



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