IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 33

In anticipation of the applicability of TE systems to emerging
challenges in grid integration, the GridWise Architecture Council
began to build a community of practice in the area of TE systems.

the TE framework and these correspond directly to sections
4.1-4.4 of the TE framework (Figure 4).
Interoperability Maturity Model

Interoperability, according to the EICTA Interoperability
White Paper, is "the capability of two or more networks,
systems, devices, applications, or components to exchange
information between them and to use the information so
exchanged." While implicitly recognized since the dawn
of engineering, interoperability has only relatively recently
received formal attention in the form of modeling. Yet
despite the obvious importance of interoperability, little
has been done until very recently in terms of developing a
method for measuring levels of interoperability. In 2012, the
GWAC developed and tested an interoperability maturity
model (IMM) based on the GWAC stack. The model was
tested by applying it to smart grid demonstration grant projects cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy to obtain
feedback on the strengths and weaknesses of trying to apply
the IMM tools to real-world efforts.
To have a situation where interoperability exists, we
need multiple entities that are required to interact with
each other, potentially at many different technical and
business levels. Interoperability is a shared property of
these entities that allows them to work together in the
manner intended, including the proper interpretation and
use of exchanged data. In other words, it includes both
technical and cognitive abilities. Therefore, measures of
interoperability must take into account technical, social,
political, and organizational factors that impact systemto-system performance across multiple parties, and the
GWAC has carried this thinking forward into its development of the TE framework.

Conclusions
When the GWAC was formed in 2005, we envisioned a system that puts the electric consumer at the center, rather the
end of the line, a system in which companies invest in their
own electricity generation, selling excess power directly to
other companies. Now, in 2016 the industry is working to
evolve the electric power system to have these characteristics.
TE systems are a promising approach for facilitating
such change, especially the integration of large numbers
of DERs, many of which will be owned by customers. The
GWAC continues to work to build a community of practice for TE systems through its regular meetings, focused
may/june 2016

workshops, and outreach to the industry. All interested parties are invited to join the discussion through participation
in these activities.

For Further Reading
GridWise Architecture Council. GridWise transactive energy framework, the gridwise interoperability context setting
framework, and the other GWAC documents and proceedings. [Online]. Available: www.gridwiseac.org
F. C. Schweppe, "Homeostatic control-Power systems
2000," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 42-47, July 1978.
F. C. Schweppe, R. D. Tabors, J. L. Kirtley, Jr., H. R.
Outhred, F. H. Pickel, and A. J. Cox, "Homeostatic utility
control," IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-99, no. 3,
pp. 1151-1163, May/June 1980.
P. De Martini and L. Kristov. (2105). Distribution systems in a high distributed energy resources future: Planning,
market design, operation and oversight. [Online]. Available:
https://emp.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/FEUR_2%20distribution%
20systems%2020151023.pdf
D. J. Hammerstrom, et al. (2007, Oct.). Information on
the GridWise Olympic Peninsula demonstration. [Online].
Available: http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/
technical_reports/PNNL-17167.pdf
Reports on the transactive control technology of the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration. [Online]. Available: www.pnwsmartgrid.org
K. Kok. (2013, May 13). The PowerMatcher: Smart coordination for the smart electricity grid. [Online]. Available: http://dare.ubvu.vu.nl/bitstream/handle/1871/43567/
dissertation.pdf?sequence=1

Acknowledgments
The work summarized in this article is the result of contributions by the members of the GWAC and those who participate in the workshops and activities of the Council. The work
was supported, in part, by the U.S. Department of Energy
under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

Biographies
David Forfia is with the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Taylor, Texas.
Mark Knight is with CGI Utilities, Billerica, Massachusetts.
Ron Melton is with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington.
p&e
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http://www.gridwiseac.org https://emp.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/FEUR_2 distribution http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/ http://www.pnwsmartgrid.org http://dare.ubvu.vu.nl/bitstream/handle/1871/43567/

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