IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2016 - 57

or market operator's point of view, looks similar to scheduling and dispatch of conventional generation resources.
Dispatchable demand-side resources include, among others,
microgrids, building energy management systems, direct
load control devices, distributed generation, distributed storage, and electric vehicles (EVs).

Definition of Stakeholders
and Their Roles and Responsibilities
One of the key elements of the bulk-power restructuring of
the 1990s was definition of the roles, responsibilities, and
information access rights of various stakeholders. This was
a necessary step in establishing the new structural framework for system and market operations. For example, the
responsibility for transmission congestion management, and
the resulting transaction curtailment rights, were assigned
to a balancing authority operator. The balancing authorities
were given access to transmission and interchange scheduling information across their control area. Formal processes
were established for scheduling transactions by traders or
other authorized stakeholders and to gain approval from system operators. Additionally, operational processes and time
frames for assessing congestion and adjusting transactions to
relieve transmission congestion were formalized.
With the expansion of distribution-connected DERs
and the emergence of various retail service providers, e.g.,
aggregators, rooftop solar power providers, and microgrids,
a similar formalization needs to be implemented at distribution and retail operations to allow for an orderly and effective utilization of distribution facilities. Table 1 provides a
mapping of the emerging retail operational stakeholders to
their bulk-power equivalent.

Definition of Dispatchable
Products and Services
The formalization of locational attributes and scheduling/
trading product definitions in the bulk-power restructuring
provided for consistency in scheduling processes and the use
of common methods and infrastructure across stakeholders
and regions. For retail transactive operations, similar common definitions need to be formalized. For example, in the
wholesale operation, points of receipt where the power injection into the transmission grid occurs, and point of delivery where the power is taken off the transmission grid, are
formally defined. An equivalent of this in retail transactive
space could be service delivery point (SDP) identification,
where a customer/prosumer is connected to the distribution
grid or point of common connection (PCC) of a microgrid.
Whereas bulk-power transactive exchanges are based on
phase-balanced operation, this may not necessarily be the
case for retail transactions using the distribution systems;
as such, the retail transactive SDP and PCC may need to
include specification of the electrical phase (A, B, or C).
Wholesale energy and capacity products have been formalized by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC),
various ISOs/RTOs, and regional reliability councils. In contrast, currently there is no standard definition of distribution/
retail products and services. Table 2 provides a side-by-side
comparison of the wholesale/transmission products and their
potential counterparts in retail/distribution area. Some services needed at the retail/distribution level may not have a
bulk-power/wholesale counterpart. As already noted, phase
balancing is not an issue at bulk-power/wholesale operation,
whereas it is important for distribution operation particularly
since DERs on a feeder may be primarily on a single phase.

table 1. Stakeholder definitions.
Distribution and Retail Operational Stakeholders
Main Category
DSO

Subcategory

Transmission and Bulk-Power Equivalent

Without retail market

Balancing authority

With retail market

ISO/RTO

Distribution wires owner/operator (DO)

Transmission owner/operator

Regulated energy service provider

Default load serving entity
Energy service provider

Competitive service providers

Demand response provider (DRP)
Distributed resource and grid
service provider

may/june 2016

Independent power producer, GenCo
Small municipal or coop utility with
surplus generation capability

Prosumer including microgrids
Net consumers

Competitive energy service provider

With DR and/or DER
Pure consumers

Small municipal or coop utility
consumers

ieee power & energy magazine

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