IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - 28

69 kV/12.47 kV
Grid
12.47 kV/480 V

Sensor 1

Sensor 2
284
SCADA
µPMU

7,170

Voltage (V)

Voltage (V)

7,190

7,150
7,130

283
282
281

(e)

(b)
7,110

0

5

10
Time (min)

15

280

20

0

5

7,150
7,145
7,140

0

200

400
600
Time (ms)

800

1,000

284
282
280

0

200

200

400
600
Time (ms)

Current (A)

400
600
Time (ms)

800

1,000

800

1,000

(e)
Current (A)

0

20

286

(b)
110
105
100
95
90

15

(d)

7,155

Voltage (V)

Voltage (V)

(a)

10
Time (min)

800

1,000

(c)

450
350
250
150
50

0

200

400
600
Time (ms)
(f)

figure 1. An example of µPMU readings compared to a standard SCADA or meter reading: (a) SCADA and μPMU measurements at sensor location 1, (b) the voltage magnitude measurement by μPMU at sensor location 1 after zooming in,
(c) the current magnitude measurement by μPMU at sensor location 1 after zooming in, (d) SCADA and μPMU measurements at sensor location 2, (e) the voltage magnitude measurement by μPMU at sensor location 2 after zooming in, and
(f) the current magnitude measurement by μPMU at sensor location 2 after zooming in.

shown in figure 1(a)-(c). the measurements at sensor 2 are
shown in figure 1(d)-(f). only one phase is shown here.
the black curves with dotted markers in figure 1(a) and
(d) show the measurements made by standard supervisory
control and data acquisition (scada) meters reporting one
root mean square (rms) value per minute. the blue curves
show the measurements made by µPMus that report 7,200
magnitude values/min.
the measurements made by µPMus provide much more
detail about voltage fluctuations. for instance, they reveal
several momentary voltage sags, as shown in figure 1(a)
and (d). two synchronized voltage sags around the sixth minute
are of particular interest and marked with arrows in both
figures. they are zoomed in on and magnified in figure 1(b)
and (e), respectively. these voltage sags last about 200 ms.
28

ieee power & energy magazine

the corresponding changes in current are shown in figure 1(c)
and (e), respectively. In this example, the voltage sag is load
induced, as opposed to grid induced, because it is caused by
turning on a large load at the location of sensor 2. the load's
surge current momentarily takes down voltage. the impact
is not only seen at the load location but can also be traced
all the way up to the feeder head at the substation. In this
example, the high temporal resolution as well as the time
synchronization of the µPMu measurements is the key to
identifying the root cause of the voltage sags.

Descriptive Analytics
Most efforts to analyze µPMu data have previously focused
on diagnostics, where an event or a fault and possibly its root
causes are explained after the fact. a human expert is often
may/june 2018



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018

Contents
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