IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - 78
IWSES plants are particularly suitable for regions that have set high
targets for wind and solar generation but have limited land available
for project development.
✔ Transmission and distribution congestion manage-
✔ performing cost-benefit analyses of iwses plants un-
ment and upgrade deferral: depending on its location,
a Bess can alleviate transmission congestion by serving the demand in the transmission-constrained area.
the Bess can be used to defer the need for transmission or distribution system upgrades by time-shifting
energy from low- to peak-demand periods.
a Bess integrated with a wind-solar plant can provide
additional plant-level services. these plant-level services may
help the plant comply with grid codes or operational requirements. while these services can be provided by a Bess that
is not integrated with the plant, more control and coordination would likely be required to achieve the same results.
✔ Compliance with technical standards: the grid codes in
various countries require wind and solar plants to limit
their ramp rates and, in some cases, also provide primary frequency response. it may be economical for an
integrated Bess to provide these services rather than
curtail the generation of the wind and solar plants for
✔ Compliance with operational requirements: in addition
to facilitating wind and solar plants' compliance with
technical standards, a Bess can also make it easier for
a plant to meet operational requirements, for instance,
in the firming (reducing forecast deviations) of wind
and solar generation. in some countries, wind plants are
penalized if generation deviates from the forecast by
more than a certain percentage. as it reduces forecast
errors, a Bess can be used to lower the penalties imposed on wind plants.
der existing and proposed regulations
✔ preparing high-level environmental and social impact
✔ outlining the financing plan for the projects using viability gap funding and other incentives to support
infrastructure projects that are economically justified
but fall short of financial viability
✔ recommending regulatory and policy changes required to integrate energy storage in india
✔ conducting a reverse trade mission for indian regulators and policy makers to learn about the energy storage business in the United states.
the steps related to the technical design of the iwses
are summarized in the following sections, and examples
from the two project sites are also provided.
Designing an IWSES Power Plant
recently, a techno-economic feasibility study for iwses
plants was completed for two sites in india (ananthpur,
andhra Pradesh; and Kutch, gujarat). this study was performed for the infrastructure leasing & Financial services
energy development Company limited, a developer and
financier of renewable projects in india under a technical assistance grant from the U.s. trade and development
agency. the deliverables of this study were as follows:
✔ developing the technical design of the iwses plant,
including the transmission evacuation plan
✔ developing use cases for integrated energy storage appropriate for the indian system
✔ sizing energy storage to provide multiple plant and
ieee power & energy magazine
Resource Assessment and Siting
of Wind Turbines
to accurately assess the wind resource at a project site, it is
important to obtain on-site measurements of wind speed and
other relevant meteorological parameters. the ideal number of measurement locations is site specific. For the two
project sites, the monitoring mast data were quality checked,
adjusted to the long-term characteristics, and sheared up to
the turbine hub height. the wind frequency distribution
across the site was determined by combining these data with
a wind resource grid file. this information was used for turbine siting and energy production estimation.
a geog raph ica l i n for mat ion system (gis) -based
approach was used to identify the buildable area suitable for
siting turbines within the project, based on land use and
other constraints. offsets were applied to various categories of land use to define exclusion areas. depending on
the features within and surrounding the project, the offset categories included property boundaries, residences,
roads, transmission lines, wetlands, streams, protected
lands, high slopes, or features that might affect the placement of turbines.
the wind turbines were then optimally placed within
the buildable area to maximize energy and minimize wake
losses after taking the necessary interturbine spacing into
account. the optimization was accomplished using the commercial wind farm design tool openwind. Upon completion
of the optimization, some turbines were resited to improve
project construction and interconnection.