IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - 8

control systems became apparent to fa-
cilitate the connection of sources to
the otherwise highly controllable grid.
Power from photovoltaic cells (and, to
a lesser extent, wind turbines) has also
called into question the need for large,
centralized power stations. The rapidly
falling costs of renewables point to a
major change from the centralized grid
topology to one that is highly distrib-
uted, with power being both generated
and consumed at the edge of the grid.
growing concern over security has led
to calls for a more robust energy grid
that is less dependent on centralized
power stations that are perceived to
be vulnerable.

A Definition of Smart Grid
The first official smart grid definition
in the United States was provided by
the energy Independence and Security
act of 2007, which was approved by

8

ieee power & energy magazine

Congress in January 2007. It provides
a description, with ten characteristics,
that can be considered a definition for
smart grid, as follows:
It is the policy of the United
States to support the moderni-
zation of the nation's electricity
transmission and distribution sys-
tem to maintain a reliable and se-
cure electricity infrastructure that
can meet future demand growth
and to achieve each of the follow-
ing, which together characterize a
Smart grid: (1) Increased use of
digital information and controls
technology to improve reliability,
security, and efficiency of the
electric grid. (2) dynamic opti-
mization of grid operations and
resources, with full cyber-security.
(3) deployment and integration
of distributed resources and
generation, including renewable

resources. (4) development and
incorporation of demand re-
sponse, demand-side resources,
and energy-efficiency resources.
(5) deployment of "smart" tech-
nologies (real-time, automated,
interactive technologies that opti-
mize the physical operation of ap-
pliances and consumer devices)
for metering, communications
concerning grid operations and
status, and distribution automa-
tion. (6) Integration of "smart"
appliances and consumer devices.
(7) deployment and integration
of advanced electricity storage
and peak-shaving technologies,
including plug-in electric and
hybrid electric vehicles, and ther-
mal storage air conditioning. (8)
Provision to consumers of timely
information and control options.
(9) development of standards for

may/june 2018


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - May/June 2018 - Contents
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