IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 26

PMU Data Center ESP
(Site 1)

Utility 1
CER

RC Primary
CER

Utility PSP (Site 1)

PMU Data Center ESP
(Site 2)

RC ESP
RC PSP (Primary)

Managed
WAN
Network

Utility 1
CER

Utility PSP (Site 2)

RC Alternate
CER

RC ESP

Managed WAN
RC PSP (Alternate)

figure 9. Simplified data exchange architecture between a TO and an RC.

grade systems (including stand-alone industry projects
as well). to support this rapid deployment, it has been
necessary to develop technical standards and guides.
coordinated by the north american synchrophasor initiative (nasPi), the national institute for standards and technology (nist), and ieee, the industry has developed key
standards for synchronized measurement technology. these
standards include updated ieee c37.118 parts 1 and 2 concerning PmUs and phasor measurement; guides for phasor
data concentrators (Pdcs) (ieee c37.244) and PmU installation, calibration, synchronization and testing (ieee c37.242);
and iec 61850-90-5 addressing new communication requirements (e.g., cybersecurity features) to take advantage of the
iec 61850 environment [which includes joint efforts by the
international electrotechnical commission (iec), ieee, the
U.s. department of energy, nist, and nasPi].
the importance of proper testing and validation is well
recognized. however, approaches to performance and conformance vary among users. For example, some rely on
vendor tests and statements, some perform their own tests
to document observed performance without requiring a full
compliance, and still others require compliance to standards
and that the user's own requirements be certified through
third-party testing. one area that needs further development
is mature vendor product support for online data quality
validation, monitoring, alarming, and reporting for a production-grade system.
26

ieee power & energy magazine

Implementation Lessons
and Key Success Factors
the deployment of large-scale synchrophasor measurement systems begins with the development of a comprehensive plan. For the wecc interconnected system involving hundreds of transmission substations stretched across a
vast service territory serving nearly 75 million customers,
the methodology for optimally determining the location
of PmU devices is based on a specific set of applications
and business requirements. PmU siting studies have been
conducted to identify observability requirement locations
for applications such as wide-area situational awareness,
improved visualization and alarming, as well as post-disturbance event analysis. a completely different series of
system studies is performed for black start (system restoration), as well as studies for adaptive protection schemes,
where system disturbances from distant locations may
appear as a local fault condition to protective relays elsewhere in the system. a confirmation from another local
protection measurement device will make the local operation system more secure.
when the synchrophasor system architectures are
designed for production-grade purposes, a number of key
requirements become part of the engineering including
cybersecurity, low latency, large data throughput (bandwidth), redundancy, high availability and reliability, and
maintainability. time synchronization for all measurements
september/october 2015



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover3
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