IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 33

Synchrophasors are now a proven tool for event detection
and postevent analysis.

The Value of Applications
and Analytics
Viewing raw synchrophasor data in real time can be an
effective way to provide wide-area situational awareness.
However, applications and analytics for both real-time and
offline use expand the value of synchrophasors.
Dynamic models of grid elements, such as generators, are
critical for system planning analyses. Typically, these parameters are either assumed or derived from costly physical testing
procedures. Therefore, the validation of generator model parameters using recorded event data played back in a simulation environment is a high-value application of synchrophasor data. This
technique has become increasingly common as synchrophasor
technology proliferates across the power grid. DVP uses this
application not only for generators but also for FACTS devices
such as static var compensators and static synchronous compensators. DVP is working with vendors to incorporate this type
of functionality into their tools, and EPG is working to develop
its own generator parameter validation tool.
In addition to generators and FACTS devices, synchrophasors are often used to understand the dynamic behavior
of loads. At DVP, mobile PMUs are temporarily deployed
at key locations to monitor the behavior of various distribution system loads. This data extends existing observations
of other high-resolution monitoring devices to establish
parameters of a composite load model, which is particularly
important for modeling phenomena such as fault-induced
delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). These techniques are
becoming essential because, without them, transmission
planning engineers cannot account for FIDVR behavior in
their studies.
Synchrophasors are now a proven tool for event detection and postevent analysis. At PJM, a cross-divisional daily
review team works with operators to identify grid disturbances, such as large generator trips both internal and external to the PJM balancing area, and evaluate performance
september/october 2015

metrics from the previous day. PJM makes use of both realtime and offline synchrophasor data analysis tools developed
by EPG and other vendors.
Oscillation detection and monitoring applications are
mature and valuable. These applications allow engineers and
operators to identify certain undesirable dynamic behaviors
of the grid and develop a mitigation strategy. EPG's RTDMS
platform includes real-time monitoring and detection of
oscillations. A software package for offline analysis called
the Phasor Grid Dynamics Analyzer (PGDA) is also provided. NYISO also finds oscillation detection to be one of
its all-star applications both inside and outside of the control room as oscillatory behavior is something that cannot be
detected with legacy telemetry (see Figure 5).
In line with end-to-end data quality strategies, DVP
developed an application that estimates the ratio correction
factor (RCF) and phase-angle correction factor (PACF) of
the instrument transformers that serve as inputs to PMUs.
With the knowledge of the RCF and PACF of the instrument transformers as a function of time, not only can raw
PMU data be calibrated but the health of instrument transformers can be inferred from a decaying instrument transformer ratio.
Additionally, for companies like DVP that have committed to full three-phase monitoring of system voltages
and currents, the focus on real-time sequence components
provides unparalleled insight into an elusive component of
power quality that has significant impacts on equipment ratings and life spans.

1,050
1,000

SCADA
PMU

950
MW

in response to the recommendation from the 2003 Northeast
blackout investigation that different organizations should
share a common view of the system, PJM has made the
RTDMS visualization software available to the 12 TO member organizations that have PMUs installed.
This dashboard (Figure 4) includes data from all PJM members and neighbor reliability coordinators. NYISO has accentuated the value of its synchrophasor data visualization by including it on its state-of-the-art 2,300 ft2 control room video wall
where it is utilized for monitoring phase angle differences, system disturbances, and oscillatory behavior in the ISO's territory.

900
850
800
750

1:15:00 1:15:50 1:16:40
1:17:30
Time 4/11/11

1:18:20

1:19:10

figure 5. A SCADA versus PMU observation of an oscillation in DVP territory.
ieee power & energy magazine

33



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 5
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover4
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