IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 42

By installing PMU devices on high-voltage power plants bays,
the plant can monitor all the quantities needed to evaluate the
single generating group behavior.

phasor measurement unit (PMU) system all over the CE
area. PMU measurements crossing borders of the transmission system operators (TSOs) were used as an example
during common power system restoration tests. One of the
challenges to cope with was the exchange of PMU data
among different TSOs, excluding market-sensitive data.
Therefore, primarily voltage phasors and frequencies are
exchanged in online operations.
Valuable information was extracted from PMU measurements to calibrate dynamic models or even fine-tune power
system stabilizer settings. This article describes the status
of current online and offline applications of several projects
within the CE power system and outlines future developments and related approaches.

are combined and overlapped with the TSO's own
measurements, allowing the dynamic behavior of the
entire interconnected system to be easily assessed.

Fault Analysis Support

Volts

The real advantage of a PMU local measurand is the sampling
(typical between 20 and 100 ms) that is adequate to monitor
electromechanical phenomena and the main effects of electrical
phenomena. Figure 1 shows the effect of a high-voltage fault
(400 kV); based on the real-time trend, it is possible to estimate
the kind of fault (single or multiple phase due to the degree of
voltage decrease, as the PMU measurement in use is based on
positive sequence output), the intervention time of the protection device, and, in the case of autoreclosing devices, the success of the maneuver. It is worth noting that a PMU measurand,
Examples of Applications Currently Used versus a classical oscilloscope recording, has the advantage of
The applications currently in use within the CE power sys- being GPS synchronized and of sufficient length to be used to
evaluate the evolution of the fault with precision several minutes
tem can be divided into two categories:
✔ for local use, meaning tools that acquire measurements after the event; clearly an oscilloscope is more efficient to thoroughly investigate the electromagnetic aspects and protection/
only from their own region, area, or TSO
✔ based on a wide area of data collection, meaning that circuit breaker phenomena.
In general, by installing PMU devices on high-voltage
phasors from neighboring, or even far away, substations
power plants bays, the plant
can monitor, in real time, all
the quantities needed to evalu440
ate the single generating group
behavior (voltage, current, fre420
quency, and active and reactive power) with a noninvasive
400
approach. Therefore, the conSlow Automatic Reclosing
Protection Clearing of Fault (<100 ms)
trol behavior of power plants
and dynamic-load response can
380
continuously be assessed.
360

Comprehensive System
Load Monitoring

340

Figure 2 shows a typical control room application, with the
dynamic color map displaying
the value of a quantity selected
by the operator, such as voltage
magnitude (as shown in the figure), relative phase angle, or frequency. More detailed information is provided in the graphic
elements, such as arrows between

Three-Phase Fault and Line Opening
320

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300

figure 1. A 400-kV busbar local fault recording (with a WAM system 100-ms sampling).
42

ieee power & energy magazine

september/october 2015



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover3
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