IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 45

from PMUs installed at the most
representative European electrical transmission nodes. The gray
boxes on the map show the angle
difference (degrees) between the
different locations; the absolute
value is a measure of the equivalent active power flowing through
the system, and the sign shows
the direction. It is a clear picture
of the real behavior of the system.
In addition, it reports the synchronized value of the frequency,
which is very useful in discovering possible large network splitting scenarios and in controlling
system frequency and deviations.
In conclusion, a modal analysis
algorithm processes the angle difference over the north-south and
east-west measurands, generating an alarm if the damping ratio
decreases below critical values.

242
241

Restoration Path
from Switzerland
"Italia 2"
Four Maneuvers
4 X 201-Mvar Shunt Reactors
1,001 km

figure 6. A restoration test path from Swiss Network.

10:25 a.m.: Circuit Breaker
Lacchiarella-Chignolo Line Closed
10:27 a.m.: Circuit Breaker
Martignone-Bargi Line Closed

240

10:47 a.m.: Outage of
Presenzano Group

239
238
237
10:57-10:59 a.m.:
Remeshing Actions

236
235
234
233
232

10:41 a.m.:
Synchronization of
Presenzano Group
End of the Test

231
230
229
228

10:31-10:32 a.m.:
Variation of Tap
Changer Lavorgo
Transformer

227
226
225
224

10:34 a.m.: Circuit
Breaker Suvereto-
Montalto Line Closed

10:22 a.m.: Circuit Breaker
Musignano-Lavorgo Line Closed
Staring Point of the Test

Phase-to-Ground Voltage

10:51 a.m.: Circuit
Breaker Suvereto-
Montalto Line Opened
Phase-to-Ground Voltage

Phase-to-Ground Voltage

figure 7. Phase-to-ground voltages in Musignano.
september/october 2015

ieee power & energy magazine

45



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