IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 53

To take advantage of WAMS data for good visualization
and state estimation in SCADA, it is necessary
to integrate them.

measurement by an angle transducer) revealed that the angular separation can visualize the system separation event in the
grid, as shown in Figures 3 and 4.
On 28 November 2009, at 13:26, a tripping of a major
transmission line in the western region (400 kV BinaGwalior S/C), carrying around 1,000 MW, resulted in a
cascade tripping of some additional interregional tie lines
between the western and northern regions. As shown in
Figure 5, the power was diverted on the remaining tie lines,
causing heavy line loadings and a sharp dip in system voltages across the grid. The system could survive, however,
due to the well-meshed transmission network, support from
generators, and quick operator action. An offline simulation
of the event revealed that the angular difference between
Vindhyachal west and the north bus at the HVdc back-to-

back station increased from 37˚ to 83˚. This event again
emphasized the importance of real-time monitoring of phase
angles in large grids.
Fundamentally, the state of the power system can be
determined if one has the voltage and angle of every bus in
the interconnected power system. These measurements are
carried out and used in check synchronization relays at the
substation level. However, the visibility of phase-angle measurements at the control center was constrained due to limitations in communication and SCADA/EMS technology. In
addition, there are other issues in utility of the phase-angle
data from SCADA/EMS. The SE runs periodically or on a
change of circuit breaker status. In a rapidly growing power
system, the SE results are often inaccurate and unreliable due
to limited network observability and bad data.

Workstations
SCADA LAN

Router
Phasor LAN
Switch or
Router
Antenna
Historian
Server

Field Device

PDC
Server

Power
BUS
BUS
PT

Communication

GPS

PMU
IRIG-B

Communication
Phasor Measurement Units and GPS

figure 6. The architecture of the first synchrophasor pilot project.
september/october 2015

ieee power & energy magazine

53



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover3
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