IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 65

Based on the real-time dynamic data of PMUs, online identification
methods for different kinds of faults or disturbances have been
designed and implemented.

real system responses, mostly caused by errors in the system
models and parameters, especially of the load. To validate
the simulation accuracy, four field tests of artificial three
phase-to-ground short circuits in 500-kV substations were
conducted in the Northeast China Power Grid on 25 March
2004 and 29 March 2005. Based on the PMU measurement
data collected, several frequently used load models were
studied, including static load with different percentages of
constant impedance, current, and power (ZIP) and different
combinations of static load and induction motor load, based
on IEEE-recommended parameters. However, the measured
curves could not be matched using any of these models.
Hence, CEPRI proposed a new synthesis load model (SLM),
shown in Figure 5(a), in which the major improvement is the
addition of a distribution impedance and a reactive power
compensation capacitor. By using this SLM, most field test
results can be better matched; typical results are shown
in Figure 5(b).
Based on previous studies, the traditional load model was
replaced by the SLM for the Northeast China Power Grid
in the simulations and dispatching after July 2006, and the
power transfer limits between different provinces in this area
were enhanced by approximately 450 MW without affecting
the security of the real system. After 2007, the SLM model

and parameters were also validated by recorded PMU data
after many disturbances in North China and Middle China
regional power grids and some provincial grids. This model
is also implemented in the Power System Analysis Software
Package, which is the most popular power system simulation
software in China.
In addition, several load parameter identifications and
management systems based on PMU and an energy management system (EMS) have been adopted by provincial power
systems in Hebei, Henan, Guangdong, and Fujian. The Fujian
system, which was completed by Hohai University in 2008,
is a typical example. First, the loads in substations are classified according to the one-day load curve in the emergency
management system. Then, the parameters for every load category are identified based on the measured data from PMUs
or a digital fault recorder; some parameters may also be summarized through the data collected by smart meters. Finally,
generalization of the load models and parameters is validated
and improved using some new PMU data after contingencies.

Generator Parameter Identification
Generator parameters can vary greatly under different operating conditions. Several identification or parameter optimization techniques, such as genetic algorithms, have been

P/ MW
650

Composite Load Model
Real Measured Data

600
550

P+jQ

RD + jXD
500
Distribution Impedance

I-Type Induction Motor

450

PL + jQL

400
C

ZIP
(a)

M

0

5

10
(b)

15

t/s
20

figure 5. Comparisons among recorded PMU data and simulations using different load models: (a) the configuration of
the CEPRI SLM and (b) the active power of the 500-kV Yongyuan-Baojia line on 29 March 2005.
september/october 2015

ieee power & energy magazine

65



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com