IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 71

As of 2013, approximately 2,400 PMU sets
had been deployed in power grids in China, covering all 500-kV
substations in the country.

Guizhou Duyun
Wide-Area Protection System
WAP Master Station
Set A

WAP Master Station
Set B

Ethernet

WAP
Management Station

220-kV Mawei
Control Station

110-kV Xinzhai
Control Station

110-kV Libo
Control Station

110-kV Zhouqin
Control Station

110-kV Sandu 110-kV Danzhai 220-kV Duyun
Control Station Control Station Control Station

figure 14. The architecture of the Duyun WAP system.

of the National Natural Science Foundation of China
(51321005).

For Further Reading
X. Xie, Y. Xin, J. Xiao, J. Wu, and Y. Han, "WAMS applications in Chinese power systems," IEEE Power Energy Mag.,
vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 54-63, Jan./Feb. 2006.
Y. Tang, D. Zhang, H. Zhang, F. Zhu, Y. Jiang, W. Jiang,
and H. Zhao, "Synthesis load model and its fitting parameters in simulation of large disturbance test carried out in
northeast China power grid (in Chinese)," Power Syst. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 75-78, 2007.
W. Huang, Z. Fang, K. Li, H. Zhao, Q. Chen, and P. Ju,
"Online synthetic load modeling system for Fujian power
grid (in Chinese)," Power Syst. Technol., vol. 33, no. 1,
pp. 37-41, 2009.
C. Lu, X. Wu, J. Wu, P. Li, Y. Han, and L. Li, "Implementations and experiences of wide-area HVdc damping control

september/october 2015

in China southern power grid," in Proc. IEEE PES General
Meeting, San Diego, CA, 2012.
Q. Li, H. Sun, J. Wang, B. Zhang, W. Wu, and Q. Guo, "Substation three-phase nonlinear state estimation based on KCL," in Proc.
IEEE/PES Power Systems Conf. and Expo., Phoenix, AZ, 2011.
J. Mu, H. Sun, Q. Guo, W. Wu, F. Xu, and B. Zhang, "Design of an online intelligent alarming system for cascading
failures of group of wind farms," in Proc. IEEE PES General Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, 2013.

Biographies
Chao Lu is with Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
Bonian Shi is with Beijing Sifang Automation Company,
Beijing, China.
Xiaochen Wu is with the China Southern Power Grid,
Guangzhou, China.
Hongbin Sun is with Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
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