IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 90

and subsynchronous oscillations. Unit
protection is described. Induction generators, static inverters, and wind farms
are also discussed.
The protection of transformer, reactor,
and shunt capacitor protection follows.
Transformer protection varies based on its
connection, and this section provides solid
information applicable to
several types of connections. Also included are
the techniques for mitigating false tripping due
to magnetizing inrush
current, overexcitation,
and CT saturation. The
mechanical detection of
faults is also reviewed.
This section includes an
appendix that details the
digital transformer differential relays and typical settings required.
Bus protection is
covered next, and illustrations of the different
configuration types. A
comparison of the pros
and cons of each bus
configuration is also
included, which is helpful in understanding the need for complex bus differential
schemes or keeping it simple when possible. Other bus protection systems are
also explained.
Motor protection requirements are discussed next, starting with the potential motor hazards. Motor protection includes protection for thermal and unbalance issues.
Line and feeder protection as well as
pilot protection are covered in Chapters
12 and 13. Sectionalizers and reclosers
are explained as well as the coordination
of these devices. The different types of
pilot relaying schemes are reviewed as
well as the communication channels
available, including the modern digital
communications. Line differential protection using digital channels and their
issues are included.
Chapter 14 begins to look at the power
system as a whole as opposed to individual components. Stability, the need for
reclosing, and load shedding is discussed.
Trip circuit design is also included in this

chapter. This section includes mitigating the effects of power system swings
on protection and use of out-of-step relaying. Autoreclosing can be applied to
both distribution and transmission lines.
Load-shedding and load-saving schemes
are discussed. Trip circuit design is vital
to accomplishing the desired tripping of
the breaker for faults or
other abnormal conditions. Monitoring trip
circuits and alarm is also
discussed. This chapter
also includes special protection schemes used to
detect abnormal conditions and initiate actions
to mitigate the circumstance and practical considerations needed.
Microprocessor applications and substation
automation is introduced
in Chapter 15, including
Boolean algebra. The
multifunctional aspect of
microprocessors is addressed. Events reports
are available from the
microprocessor relays,
providing valuable information for fault
and other event analysis. The change to
commissioning and periodic testing is
discussed with the adoption of microprocessor-based relaying. Fault location
information is also explained.
Chapter 16 addresses the need for
monitoring protective system performance to improve it. Along with this is a
review of the regulatory issues and North
American Regulatory Corporation's recent standards. The tools for analyzing
power system events are covered here,
including fault recorders, relay event reports, and dynamic disturbance recorders.
A review of the major U.S. power outages
is also given along with the outcomes of
these events. This provides the reader with
the background for several of the newly
introduced regulatory standards.
The back of the book contains practical problems for the protection engineer or student to practice the fundamental presented in the book starting
with Chapter 2 through Chapter 16.

Protective
Relaying:
Principles and
Applications
provides a solid
foundation for
the masterlevel student as
well as power
engineers new
to protection
principles.

90

ieee power & energy magazine

Protective Relaying: Principles and
Applications provides a solid foundation for the master-level student as well
as power engineers new to protection
principles, and it is most certainly a
valuable reference for the experienced
protection engineer. This book provides enough information of historical
applications to aid the reader in understanding the protection in service today.
The material is presented clearly with
examples to provide practice of the fundamentals presented.
-Miriam P. Sanders

Electric Safety:
Practice and Standards
By Mohamed El-Sharkawi, 2013,
ISBN-13: 978-1466571495.
Northwest Lineman College provides
a range of power system training that
is designed for entry-, apprentice-, and
advanced-level trainees. The importance
of effective training and education for
line workers is paramount, given the
hazards associated with working on
and around electric lines and equipment on a daily basis. Reviewing this
book was a valuable experience for me
since I was able to relate its information to the academic curriculum that we
utilize at Northwest Lineman College
along with my experience as a lineman. The author, Prof. El-Sharkawi, has
an impressive array of credentials and
experience related to power systems and
associated applications. His experience
in authoring various publications was
evident as the book is clearly a highlevel publication.
The first chapter covers various
fundamentals of electricity. Electric
and magnetic fields are well explained
and easy to comprehend. Alternating
C fundamentals include the operation
of a three-phase generator and the associated alternating current waveforms. Delta and wye connections are
explained with the use of easy-to-understand vectors. I liked the examples
that were provided with actual values
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MPE.2015.2435972
Date of publication: 18 August 2015

september/october 2015



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