IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 32

Rated Power (GW)

load. Recently, battery energy storage has experienced a rapid
decline in cost, mirroring the learning curves spurred by wind
and solar generation over the past decade. With these declining
costs, many see an increasing, if not pivotal, role for battery
energy storage on the future grid. According to Utility Dive's
State of the Electric Utility 2017 survey, "78% of utility professionals expect utility-scale storage to increase moderately
or significantly on their systems." However, battery energy
storage remains an emerging technology and is still relatively
expensive compared to other utility-scale energy technologies.
Although 2016 proved a record year for battery energy storage
deployment, the total annual installations represented only
221 MW across the United States.
While the future role of energy storage may be promising, it is still an ancillary component of the power grid. Even
when including large pumped hydro plants, energy storage
accounts for only 24 GW of capacity in the United States,
which has a peak demand of nearly 840 GW: currently, battery storage is lower than 1 GW, and thermal storage is less
than 0.8 GW. A similar characterization is true for other
electricity grids around the world. As Figure 1 shows, globally more than 95% of existing energy storage capacity is in
the form of pumped hydro plants. Historically, these plants
were built as part of the expansion of nuclear power in the
1970s and early 1980s, with limited new construction over
the past two decades.
Battery energy storage is still a maturing technology.
Even with rapid development and recent advances, the state
of energy storage technology today faces several limitations,
including high costs on both a kilowatt and kilowatt hour
basis, lower than desired rates of charge and discharge, and
life-cycle limitations-as well as concerns about the safety

160

Electrochemical

140

Electromechanical

120

Hydrogen Storage

100
80

of battery energy storage systems. In addition, the wide variety of applications for energy storage require substantially
different levels of power, energy, cost, cycle life, size, and
flexibility, resulting in a situation where "one size fits all"
may not work. Instead, the industry will need a variety of
energy storage technologies, ranging from high-power, short
duration batteries for balancing applications to long-duration
storage needed for energy applications.

The Rise of Lithium Ion and the Competitive
Landscape of Storage Technologies
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) chemistry battery technology has advanced significantly over the past two decades, both from a
technical and cost perspective, and is currently the cell chemistry of choice for most battery energy storage applications.
According to GTM Research, Li-ion chemistry accounted for
at least 97% of grid-scale battery energy storage deployment
in 2016.
While Li-ion battery storage systems have seen the fastest
decreasing costs and growth in deployment, battery systems
of other cell chemistries are also advancing. There continues
to be significant progress in the scale-up of new battery technologies including lower-temperature sodium batteries (NaS
and NaNiCl2 batteries), flow batteries, and alkaline rechargeable batteries. Just as several decades of manufacturing and
deployment history have demonstrated the capabilities of
NaS battery technology, emerging technologies such as flow
batteries and alkaline rechargeable storage systems must
demonstrate that they can meet the economic and reliability
needs of electric utilities. In addition, unlike Li-ion batteries,
newer storage technologies do not benefit from having other
available large markets, such as electric vehicles, to provide

Pumped Hydro Storage
Thermal Storage

60
40
20
1929
1944
1951
1954
1956
1958
1960
1963
1965
1967
1969
1971
1973
1975
1977
1979
1981
1983
1985
1987
1989
1991
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018

0

figure 1. Global energy storage installations: 171 GW installed as of the end of 2016. (Source: Office of Electricity
Delivery and Energy Reliability, Sandia National Laboratories; and Strategen Consulting, DOE Global Energy Storage
Database, 2017.)
32

ieee power & energy magazine

november/december 2017



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 105
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 106
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 107
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 108
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 109
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 110
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 113
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 114
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 115
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 116
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - Cover4
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com